Functions, types and barriers of communication
Thanks to communication skills, each person grows, develops, learns and receives new knowledge, after which he finds his recognition and teaches a new younger generation. It is no secret that communication brings pleasure and positive emotions to some people, while to other people, due to isolation, it causes a feeling of discomfort. Discommunication is the deliberate evasion of a conversation in general or discussion on an unpleasant topic.
Situations when a person had to communicate with an opponent on an uninteresting and difficult to digest topic are familiar to many. If at this moment a person resorts to all kinds of methods to avoid the topic and end the conversation, psychologists talk about discommunication. As the problem worsens, a person begins to suffer from such consequences as inhibition of serious issues and difficulty in making decisions.
What is discommunication?
From childhood, each person is invested in basic and necessary communication skills for further fruitful and not difficult life activities. Communication is a verbal and non-verbal way of transmitting information and its receipt, the exchange of emotions, impressions and new knowledge. Discommunication is the antonym of the concept of communication, that is, one of the violations of communication skills in communication.
Psychologists today distinguish several types of discommunication, namely:
- "I'm too good / bad to discuss it."
- "You're too good / bad to discuss."
- "You are smart / ugly / fat / live abroad, because of this ...".
- “I'm proud / self-sufficient / tired of life / adult, because of this ...”
- "When I see this, then I feel ...".
- “The subject of the conversation is too good / bad to discuss.”
- “This statement offends my picture of the world / political views ...”
- "That's why it is not necessary to discuss it: ...".
It would seem that a slight violation of communication skills and lively communication between people, but as a consequence it can lead to serious disorders. Often, opponents not only avoid the topic of conversation due to any unpleasant emotions, but rather communicate around the topic, which also refers to the term discommunication.
Where is this term often found?
It is especially important for people who are faced with such a concept as discommunication, to determine the places and circumstances in which it most often occurs.
Knowing the risk areas, it is possible to prevent communication disruption or eliminate it in a timely manner. The most common environment that accompanies discommunication is everyday communication or online conversation.
Ways to deal with discommunication
The fight against discommunication begins, as a rule, in the event that a person has a persistent syndrome of discommunication. Then we are not talking about isolated cases, but about a constant and stable violation of communication, which can be expressed in several forms:
- a feeling of loneliness among people and a desire for contacts, but the impossibility of finding an interlocutor,
- communicative helplessness when there are interlocutors, but there is no opportunity to make and establish contacts,
- conflict communication, when contacts with the interlocutor are needed to defuse from aggression,
- weak desire for contacts, fatigue from communications, intolerance to communication in general, complete isolation in oneself.
The main way to combat discommunication is to completely focus on a specific topic of conversation, as well as informative preparation for this topic against the background of ignorance. At the same time, during a conversation, a person needs to turn off thoughts and feelings about his appearance and appearance, believing in himself and his inner and outer attractiveness. It is possible to reduce nervous tension and excitement by all kinds of oriental practices, whether it be meditation or breathing techniques.
Psychologists' advice on getting rid of discommunication lies in simple points and actions:
- do not attach importance to the assessments and judgments of the people around you, you sometimes need to include nonsense,
- in order for the speech to be clear and competent, it is necessary to constantly develop, learning new facts and information,
- in every possible way, a person needs to constantly increase his self-esteem, for this you need to set goals and gradually realize them in life,
- Internet communication is best minimized, giving preference to live communication, filled with emotions and feelings,
- The best way to build communication skills is with real friends and their support.
Another way to get rid of excitement is to say aloud all your fears, which interfere with full communication with people. According to psychologists, the outward and voiced fear immediately loses its significance. Speaking to a large number of people, you can eliminate the excitement by directly telling the audience about it. And any communication should not be taken so seriously that one conversation causes a lot of negative emotions.
If the discommission syndrome is observed not in oneself, but in the interlocutor, the only way to deal with the violation is to return the conversation to the topic. To do this, gently but persistently indicate to the opponent that he deviated from the topic, saying something like "I think we are somewhat distracted ...". On the Internet, such manifestations on the part of other people are best left unreacted, so as not to heat up “conscious offtopic”.
Discommunication is a fairly common disorder that can occur in isolated cases or persistent syndrome requiring correction. It is best to deal with the problem under the control and supervision of a psychologist or psychotherapist. The main task is to reduce the degree of anxiety and excitement during communication, increasing knowledge, self-development and self-acceptance.
Communication - interpersonal interaction, which consists in the exchange of emotionally significant messages. It does not have a clear structure, often aimlessly. The interlocutors share feelings, impressions, and curious information with each other. In other words, communication is triggered by emotions. The manipulation of the interlocutor during communication depends on the type of persons, mood and is done mostly unconsciously.
Communication is a purely informational process. It is an exchange of information between individuals in which a message is transmitted purposefully. In this case, manipulation is used meaningfully. In contrast to communication, it necessarily has a conscious goal for at least one of the participants (attracting an interlocutor to his position, encouraging him to take the necessary action or simply increasing the information fund). Communications include business correspondence, negotiations, reports, seminars, press conferences, discussions. Emotions for this process are not so characteristic.
- Information and communication - the exchange of information.
- The interactive function of communication is associated with the development of rules for the interaction of people, the clear organization of their joint activities to achieve their goals.
- Cognitive - the development of new information for its application in practice.
- Axiological - assessment of an object or process in terms of utility (value) for an individual or society as a whole.
- Regulatory - the transfer and consolidation of norms in the ordinary consciousness.
- Psychotherapeutic - the establishment of human relations. It is known that a person is a social being, therefore, without communication with other individuals, inevitably, association occurs, which subsequently leads to gross mental disorders. It is known that the most terrible punishment is a solitary confinement in which a prisoner soon goes crazy.
- Socio-practical - the exchange of performance, abilities, skills.
According to the traditional communication model, the following sequence of elements is distinguished:
- Source of information (addressee) - a person who has a specific goal of communication, an idea.
- Coding is the process of translating thoughts into a sign system (words, facial expressions, gestures) that can be conveyed.
- Communication channels are means of transmitting information. These are technical means: telephone, Internet or the environment (air, light, water).
- Decoding is a decryption process in which the receiver (addressee) gives the encoded information real meaning.
- Recipient (addressee) - the one to whom the information was intended.
- The response is what the recipient feels in response to the information received
- Feedback is that part of the response that the recipient brings to the sender with words, actions, symbols, emotions. At the same time, communication roles are changing.
Separate another element - noise. These are external factors that distort the transmitted data, violate their integrity, the possibility of perception by the addressee. Noise also includes communicative barriers, that is, psychological obstacles that violate the adequate perception of the transmitted information.
- Phonetic barrier. It is due to the characteristics of speech. It is complete or incomplete. Incomplete misunderstanding arises when a person slurred words, lisps, speaks very quickly. A complete misunderstanding may be, for example, when communicating information in a foreign language. The phonetic barrier also arises with a sharp increase in tone, as this blocks the understanding of what has been said, and attention is transferred to the speaker’s attitude. The phonetic barrier can be overcome by competent placement of pauses, moderately calm speech.
- The semantic barrier. It occurs when the interlocutor does not understand the meaning of what was said. This is due, for example, to the use of slang words by representatives of various subcultures. To overcome this barrier, it is necessary to abandon the use of speech forms used purely in your subculture.
- Stylistic barrier. This is a discrepancy in the style of data transfer to their content. For example, the presentation of a recipe in an artistic style.
- A logical barrier arises in people with different types of thinking. For example, one interlocutor has an abstract-logical, the other is visual-figurative. You can explain the road in completely different ways. For a person with abstract logical thinking, it will look like this: “walk straight 200 meters to the pedestrian crossing sign, after it turn left and go forward until it stops, until you meet the yellow sign.” Such an explanation will be typical for a person with visual-figurative thinking: "Go there (point with your hand forward) until you see a crowd of people, its direction will show you the way forward." You must learn to adapt to the type of thinking of the recipient of information.
Types of communications in the organization
The organizational lines distinguish the following communication channels:
- Formal (Vertical ascending and descending, horizontal)
Formal communication channels are defined by management regulations. Widely distributed in organizations with a hierarchical management structure. Downward vertical channels are the movement of information from leadership to subordinates. This may be specific tasks for the performance of work, information on it, instructions, feedback from subordinates according to the results of activities. Ascending vertical channels is the movement from subordinates to leadership. Perform the role of obtaining information about the progress of the work, its final results, feedback from the head, as well as the opinions of subordinates on current issues.
Informal communication channels are most often represented by rumors. This is a faster transfer of information. Managers often use these channels to study the opinions of employees and their readiness for change, weaknesses in the organization. By their nature, rumors can be positive (employees 'wishes and hopes), negative (employees' fears and fears, expressing hatred towards someone or the organization) and neutral (expected changes in the control of labor discipline, future reductions, increases or decreases).
And finally, horizontal channels - communication between employees performing one level of job duties in order to coordinate the work process.
Principles of Effective Communication
- The principle of consistency.
The semantic correspondence of the information received and the response. For example, a greeting requires a greeting back. The question should be answered, not another question. In this way, each speech fragment will have a completion.
- The principle of the preferred structure.
Confirming and rejecting response cues are not the same. Consent is usually expressed without delay, extremely succinctly and clearly.
The boss asks the subordinate: "The report must be submitted before tomorrow"
The subordinate replies: "Good."
Disagreement is accompanied by a preliminary pause, followed by a more lengthy response, including arguments and explanations.
Head: “Analyze weekly statistics by department by evening”
Subordinate: “(pause) I would gladly carry out this assignment, but now I'm busy with the previous task.”
The sender, who knows the principles of effective communication, after a request hears a pause of disagreement and softens the demand.
Head: “By the evening, analyze the weekly statistics on the department and then you can leave work early tomorrow.”
Such a conversation will get rid of unnecessary tension, and the assignment will be executed.
It consists of 4 groups of postulates: quality, quantity, attitude, method.
Quality: "The statement must be true."
Quantity: “A statement must contain no less and no more information than is required”
Attitude: "Do not deviate from the topic."
Method: “Speak clearly.”
Centuries ago, it took decades to spread fashion. For example, the wig fashion that the French king Louis XVI introduced in 1580 to hide baldness, spread across Europe only after more than a hundred years. Today, the Pokemon Go application has so quickly gained popularity that after only 2 weeks, the number of its users was 45 million. And the point is not in the degree of significance of the event or fashion, but in the evolution of the media.
Mass communication - literally translated as "mass communication", that is, communication in which a large number of people participate. It is carried out using technical means (television, computer technology, printing, radio, etc.) or otherwise mass communication (information)
About discommunication and its consequences in nature
* in the voice of Drozdov * And today, my little holivar lovers, we will talk about discommunication and disconnect. Some of you may feel some deja vu because knjazna I’ve already spoken on this subject once, but I remembered this conversation in some parts of it.
So what am I talking about?
Discommunication is a very common phenomenon that occurs when the character A declares a topic for conversation, and the character B begins to communicate AROUND the topic, and not ON it. Exceptions are rare and very valuable, but in other cases we have for example, such and such, and such, when instead of discussing the topic, an attempt was made to realize our own goal about the interlocutor (that is, about me) and discuss the personality of character A (again, me )To avoid: we are now talking about the mechanism of discommunication, and not about me and my attitude to the above threads.
So, what characters B usually do instead of talking about:
1. They say or prove that they are good enough (or not good enough) to discuss this topic.
2. They say or prove that you are good enough (or not good enough) to discuss this topic.
3. They say that the topic itself is sufficient (or insufficient) good to discuss it at all.
4. They talk about their properties with which the topic or you are consonant (or dissonant) and therefore. (further - anything, be surprised at your health)
5. They talk about your properties with which the topic is consonant (or inconsistent) and therefore. (similarly - be surprised at your health, you’re unlikely to see this anywhere else)
6. Report their feelings about the topic being raised at all (and finally, happiness, if you are not appointed responsible for these feelings before the heap)
7. Announce that you have offended the picture of the interlocutor’s world with your raised topic, and here the holivar in your and neighboring territories definitely begins. Or character B will defiantly retire, talking about how dare you are.
8. They talk about how to get around the topic so that, God forbid, not have to discuss it.
Yes, the personality of character A and his feelings (as well as the personality and feelings of character B) can of course be legitimately discussed, but ONLY if this is stated as a topic for conversation. For example, when I write “I have a migraine, I don’t love everyone”, I’m easily ready to discuss migraine, misanthropy as a phenomenon, and why I do not like everyone with migraine.
The interlocutor’s personality in the interior is a very entertaining thing, I don’t argue, but I don’t collect a Kunstkamera here, if that’s why, especially beautiful examples that add disrespect to the magazine hostess to the above scheme are usually banned without kilometer threads. Which, in fact, happened in the first case. In the second, sir tried to straighten out and still has every chance of a constructive conversation.
. yes, and by the way. I understand that now those (especially from among my personal acquaintances) who I never thought about during the writing of this post will definitely be driven.
So, don’t, please!
Theories of Mass Communication
There are 2 approaches to understanding their impact on humans:
- Human-centered approach. It is characteristic of this direction that a person incites the media to his own needs and requirements. That is, skillfully uses information volumes, easily filtering the necessary and unnecessary data.
- Media-oriented approach (G. McLuhan theory). It is characteristic of this approach that a person himself submits to the means of mass communication. They act on his consciousness, change their views. Moreover, the strength of the impact depends on the life experience of the audience, its attitudes, speed of perception.
What is discommissioning?
Unlike communication, which in the most general sense is communication between people, discommunication means one of its violations.
In this case, the interlocutor intentionally does everything possible so as not to communicate on a designated topic. For example, the topic “I want to lose weight” discusses various diets, sports and other ways to lose weight. A deliberate deviation from this topic will be discommunication.
Where does discomfort occur?
The above violations in the communication process are found both on the Internet, and in everyday communication. And, if in a personal conversation these methods are used to divert attention from a topic that is unpleasant for the interlocutor for some reason, then on the Internet they often serve to attract attention.
How to deal with discommunication?
On the Internet - nothing. Answering a person to the so-called "conscious offtopic", you will give him an incentive to continue in the same spirit. Despite the fact that the comments of such people are often provocative in nature, they should be ignored, and if possible, delete comments.
In face-to-face communication, one should, gently but persistently, return the interlocutor to the topic under discussion: "It seems to me that we were somewhat distracted ...".
Discommunication is a psychological ploy that can pursue various goals in communication.. However, do not let people use it.
Knowing the tricks (examples) of discommunication and methods of protection against them allows you to direct communication in the right direction, as well as protect yourself from unnecessary negativity.
Updated: 06.06.2019, 00:00 Word Count: 473 Reading Time: 2 min.
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