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Grade 2 Prostate Cancer and Survival Prognosis

Hearing a diagnosis of prostate cancer, many men perceive this as a sentence.

Cancer cells not only affect the prostate gland. The neighboring organs are also under threat.

Read more about the treatment and prognosis of grade 2 prostate cancer in the article.

Prostate Cancer Grade 2 - Life Span

  1. With age, the hormonal background in men changes. And the older the man, the greater the risk of cancer cells in the prostate.
  2. Genetic predisposition to the disease.
  3. Pay attention to your diet. The abundance of animal fat and a lack of vitamin D can cause this formidable disease.
  4. Smokers are also at risk. Cigarettes contain cadmium, which causes intoxication.

How is it developing?

There are 4 degrees of development of pathology:

  1. Pathological changes in stage 1 are difficult to diagnose. The tumor is so small that it is simply impossible to probe.
  2. At 2 stages, the deeper layers are affected. But the cancer is still in the gland. The insidiousness of the disease is that it is asymptomatic. You can identify the disease during the diagnosis or palpation of the gland.
  3. With further development, cancer cells begin to infect neighboring organs. The lymph nodes are also affected.
  4. For stage 4 cancer, metastases occur.

Distinctive features

The disease has not yet had time to affect neighboring tissues. At stage 2, the patient has no metastases. Although the cancer cells have already managed to penetrate deeply into the gland itself. Small seals appear. The chance of recovery is quite high. The main thing is to start treatment for prostate cancer of the 2nd degree in time.

Symptoms and manifestations

Prostate cancer of the 2nd degree - we will consider life expectancy a little further. Do not underestimate the danger of this disease. After all, a cancerous tumor has already formed.

Men may not even be aware of their illness. Often, grade 2 prostate cancer does not cause the patient any inconvenience.
But not all patients are asymptomatic.

Some people have problems urinating:

  • it gets too frequent
  • false urge to urinate.

Classification Methods

The disease is classified according to several criteria:

  1. The degree of development of cancer can be determined by the Glisson scale. To assess the condition of the affected tissues, the patient undergoes a biopsy. According to the results of the analysis of cells, doctors determine the degree of malignancy of the formation.
  2. Knowing the amount of antigen (PSA) in the blood, you can identify the level of tumor marker.
  3. The most commonly used TNM system. It is based on 3 indicators:
  • T - how much the neoplasms have spread in the body,
  • N - the degree of spread of cancer cells in the lymph nodes,
  • M - the patient has metastasis.

Prostate cancer of the 2nd degree can be divided into 2 stages:

  • stage 2A, which is characterized by the defeat of only one lobe of the gland,
  • with the onset of stage 2B, the tumor grows and spreads to both lobes.

How to diagnose?

Determining prostate cancer in stage 2 is very difficult. The diagnosis is confirmed only after determining the level of PSA in the blood.

This is a protein that is produced by the prostate gland in case of neoplasms. In the process of rectal examination, a node in the prostate can be detected.

The final conclusions can be drawn after undergoing a biopsy, ultrasound and analysis of laboratory data.

In general, for stage 2 prostate cancer, the prognosis is favorable. The survival rate of patients with this diagnosis over 5 years reaches 60-90%.

How to treat prostate cancer grade 2 read below.

Prostate Cancer, Grade 2: Prognosis of Survival

Survival is often expressed as a percentage of the chances of survival over the length of time since the diagnosis (usually 5 or 10 years).

  • Despite the fact that each case is individual, in general, the prognosis for stage 2 prostate cancer is favorable. Survival of patients 5 years after diagnosis is almost 100%.
  • In prostate cancer of the 2nd degree, the patient's life expectancy depends on the success of treatment, age and associated pathologies. Most (90%) patients manage to fully recover. Israel is considered the world leader in treatment effectiveness.
  • After recovery, a man needs to undergo regular examinations by a urologist.

Treatment methods

How to treat grade 2 prostate cancer?

Treatment for prostate cancer stage 1, 2:

  1. Surgical intervention - This is the most radical method of fighting cancer. During the operation, the surgeon removes the tumor along with the prostate gland.
  2. Radiotherapy consists in irradiating cancer cells with x-rays. In this case, their destruction occurs. The procedure is painless and lasts about 15 minutes.
  3. Cancer cells can also be destroyed with chemotherapy. To do this, toxic drugs that are administered intravenously are used. The duration of treatment is 6 months. However, this method has a lot of side effects. Many patients lose their hair, experience nausea and weakness.
  4. Method brachytherapy involves the introduction into the patient's body of radioactive particles. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. A tumor when iridium atoms enter it begins to decrease.
  5. Hormone therapy. Increased hormonal levels can lead to tumor growth in the prostate. Hormone therapy can reduce the level of androgens.

For the treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree without surgery, apply:

  1. Substitutes for the pituitary hormone. After taking these funds, the level of hormones in the patient’s blood decreases sharply.
  2. Antiandrogens inhibit the interaction of affected cells with hormones.
  3. Antagonists are designed to slow the development of tumors. They also reduce testosterone.

What treatment do patients with grade 2 prostate cancer receive?

The course of treatment for stage 2 prostate cancer is determined on a case-by-case basis. Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are considered along with the patient’s age.

If the cancer is not very aggressive, then the benefits of the watch and wait strategy may be higher than the outcome of the treatment, especially if the patient is old.

Folk methods

One of the causes of prostate cancer is elevated testosterone levels. With the help of plants containing estrogen, hormonal levels can be normalized.

These plants include:

It is best to prepare herbal infusions every day, as over time they lose their healing properties.

Symptoms

In general, oncology of the prostate gland is characterized by the appearance of a tumor in the prostate. The peculiarity of the disease is that it is rather difficult to identify it in the early stages. As a rule, the diagnosis is made only at stages 3-4. However, if a disease is detected at the very beginning, doctors give positive predictions for its treatment, and the measures of action are exclusively therapeutic.

By stage 2, the neoplasm has time to grow, compared with the initial stage. At the same time, the tumor does not carry any danger, since it does not affect nearby organs and does not form metastases. Cancer cells are located only in the prostate itself, which contributes to the formation of nodes in this area.

The "cunning" of the second stage of the development of the disease lies in the absence in some cases of any obvious symptoms.

Most patients do not even think that their body may have problems. Often this leads to the fact that the cure of the disease begins later than necessary, when it is already moving to the next stage and poses a real risk to the life of a man.

However, grade 2 prostate cancer does not always behave in this way and sometimes manifests itself through certain signs:

  • frequent urination
  • difficulty urinating
  • false urge to the toilet,
  • excessively weak or intermittent stream.

Many representatives of the stronger sex do not attach importance to these symptoms, considering them insufficient to contact specialists. More often, thoughts about going to the doctor are prompted by painful sensations in the penis and lower abdomen, which appear, as a rule, at the end of stage 2 of the disease. In such a situation, the urologist can already easily detect the seal by rectal examination.

Diagnostics

Determining the correct diagnosis is the key to successful elimination of carcinoma of the prostate gland of the second degree. You can identify the malignant nature of the formation by:

  • analysis for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) - this test is carried out as an additional examination to determine the degree of the disease,
  • transrectal ultrasound - high-precision equipment shows the area of ​​affected cells,
  • rectal palpation - as a result of this procedure, it becomes possible to identify the compaction of the parenchyma of the prostate gland,
  • computed tomography and MRI - with their help it is possible to determine the location, size and nature of the neoplasm,
  • biopsies - for the study, a section of the tissue of the compaction is removed, which allows you to finally diagnose the disease.

Prostate cancer 2 degrees: treatment with folk remedies

Folk remedies help to remove harmful substances that appear due to a tumor from the body, give energy to a depleted body and reduce discomfort. To do this, you can use a drinking decoction of hop cones:

  • Pour a tablespoon of cones with a liter of boiling water and darken in a water bath for 15 minutes.
  • Take before meals, a quarter cup, washed down with a glass of boiled water.

A decoction for giving strength can also be made from licorice root:

  • Grind the root, pick up a tablespoon, pour 500 ml of boiling water.
  • Cook for 10 minutes over low heat.
  • Take before meals, one or two tablespoons.

Without the consent of a doctor, taking folk remedies (soda, oak bark, etc.) and drugs with unproven effectiveness, such as the ASD fraction, is not recommended. This “lubricates” the symptoms of the disease and prevents the doctor from understanding how the disease develops.

Treatment for prostate cancer of the 2nd degree includes one of the following methods, or a combination thereof:

  1. Radical prostatectomy - A term for a surgical procedure in which the prostate is removed. This operation will relieve the disease if the cancer cells have not spread to other areas of the body, but it has its own complications. The surrounding nerves can be damaged and sometimes sexual dysfunction occurs. A prostatectomy is performed in Irkutsk, Moscow and other large cities of Russia.
  2. Radiation therapy - created for the treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree and many other types of cancer. Radiation destroys cancer cells and helps to reduce the tumor. An advanced method of radiation therapy is brachytherapy, in which not external, but internal irradiation of the prostate is used with an individually selected dose of a radioactive substance. With prostate adenocarcinoma in people over 65, radiation therapy is used in conjunction with hormonal therapy.
  3. Hormone therapy - suppresses the level of the male hormone androgen, due to which either the growth rate of the tumor slows down or the tumor decreases in size.

What does t2nomo mean for prostate cancer?

This is a clinical classification of second-degree prostate cancer in the TNM system.

  • T2 means the tumor is limited to the prostate or spreads into the capsule.
  • N0 - there are no secondary tumor foci in the regional lymph nodes.
  • M0 - There are no signs of metastases in distant lymph nodes.

Prostate cancer 2 degrees: treatment and reviews

Most positive reviews on prostate cancer forums are associated with radical prostatectomy. This method is more effective in comparison with radiation and hormone therapy, since healthy cells of the body are not affected and during the operation, the doctor most accurately determines the areas of the prostate affected by the cancer. Negative reviews of radical prostatectomy indicate worsening erection and urinary incontinence.

  • Prostatectomy Cost in Russia - from 100 thousand to 350 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of brachytherapy varies from 450 thousand to 800 thousand rubles.
  • The cost of hormone therapy - from 350 thousand to 750 thousand rubles.

Signs of Grade 2 Prostate Cancer

Symptoms for stage 2 prostate cancer are often associated with sex and problems with urination. Each case is individual, and the patient may not experience all of the following symptoms.

Most often, a “complete set” of symptoms occurs in people with a diagnosis of low grade differentiated prostate cancer. It means that the tumor is characterized by very rapid invasive growth. Its spread up to metastases can occur in a short time, so it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. A marker of tumor progression is an increase in the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

There are also slightly differentiated forms of cancer, for example, scirrhosis, as well as differentiated forms arising from the glandular, flat, plastic or cubic epithelium, or the terminal sections of various glands (alveolar cancer).

Sexual problems:

  • Impotence - difficulties with the occurrence of an erection or its maintenance.
  • Hemospermia is a condition in which there is blood in semen.
  • Painful ejaculation.

Signs and symptoms of grade 2 prostate cancer associated with urination:

  • Problems starting urination.
  • Weak flow during urination.
  • Pain during urination.
  • Hematuria (visible or invisible blood in the urine).
  • Rapid urination.

Diet and menu for stage 2 prostate cancer

About 4,500 men were diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer in one study of a diet for grade 2 prostate cancer, published in the medical publication JAMA Internal Medicine.

  • It turned out that the study participants who consumed the highest amount of vegetable fats had a lower risk of dying from prostate cancer or for any other reason than the men who consumed the most animal fats. Most vegetable fats consumed by patients came from oils in salads and nuts.
  • Men who consumed the most vegetable oil lived longer, in part because their cancer was less likely to spread outside the prostate gland. This suggests, but does not prove, that a diet rich in vegetable oils can slow the progression of prostate cancer.
  • Although the study focused on oils and fats, it is important to consider that people who consumed a lot of vegetable oil did not eat refined carbohydrates such as white rice, white bread, and desserts.
  • People who replaced 10% of their total calories from carbohydrates with calories from vegetable oils reduced their chance of dying from prostate cancer by 29% over eight years of follow-up.

A diet for grade 2 prostate cancer should include:

  • a generous amount of plant foods that provide the body with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. They can be "taken" from products such as avocados, nuts, fish, soy and canola, and olive oil.
  • Useful drinks with antioxidants: fruit drinks, green tea and herbal teas. Caffeine-rich drinks are best left out of the menu.

Sample menu:

  • Morning: oatmeal with fruits and soy milk. Or an omelet with tomatoes.
  • Day: tomato soup with garlic and onions, boiled brown rice with chicken or beef cutlet.
  • High tea: vegetable salad and cranberry juice.
  • Dinner: bean lobio with garlic, and tuna salad.

Prostate cancer grade 2: what happens after surgery

After the operation, when the patient is still under anesthesia, a catheter (thin, flexible tube) will be placed in his penis so that urine flows out through it. The catheter usually remains in place for as long as the wound heals. A man will be able to urinate on his own after removing the catheter.

With grade 2 prostate cancer after surgery, it will take several days to be in the hospital, and the initial recovery period will take from 3 to 5 weeks.

Possible side effects of prostatectomy:

  • There is a slight risk of stroke, blood clots in the legs that could travel to the lungs, reactions to anesthesia, and infection at the incision site.
  • Near the prostate gland there are many blood vessels, so there is a risk of bleeding during and after surgery.
  • Rarely, part of the intestine can be surgically removed with a prostatectomy, which can lead to infections in the abdomen.

The risk depends, in particular, on the general state of health, the age of the patient, and the skill of the surgical team.

The main possible side effects of prostate removal are urinary incontinence and inability to have sex. It should be noted that they can also occur with other modern forms of treatment for malignant tumors.

The degrees and stages of development of prostate cancer

In the second stage, the tumor grows, but is still within the organ

PCa (prostate cancer) is characterized by 4 stages of development. On each of them, the tumor behaves differently. The stages of the development of the disease have the following features:

  • Stage 1. Symptoms of pathology are not manifested. As a rule, cancer at this stage of development is detected during routine diagnosis.
  • 2 stage. Disturbance of urination makes itself felt. During palpation, a specialist notices a seal in the prostate gland. There are no metastases.
  • 3 stage. The neoplasm continues to evolve. Oncological cells infect neighboring tissues. Cancer spreads to the lymph nodes. The patient is diagnosed with the first symptoms of the disease.
  • 4th stage. The disease is actively progressing. Oncological cells are rapidly spreading to different parts of the body.

Anxiety symptoms

Prostate cancer of the 2nd degree has practically no pronounced symptoms. The disease is dangerous due to the complexity of timely diagnosis, therefore it is characterized by high mortality - at the last stage, the pathology is not treatable. With timely treatment of grade 2 prostate cancer, the prognosis is positive, since this stage is characterized by low aggressiveness.

Symptoms of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree depend on the characteristics of the patient’s body; oncology is manifested differently in every man. Quite often, patients note:

  • violation of urination
  • frequent urination,
  • decreased performance
  • feeling of pressure in the anus.

Such mild symptoms often remain unattended, as a result, the cancer progresses rapidly and is not treated in a timely manner. A common mistake of all men is the neglect of a doctor’s consultation when any discomfort in the pelvic organs appears.

The second stage of the disease is divided into two stages, which differ in quantitative changes in malignant cells. This stage of the development of cancer can manifest itself as urinary incontinence, and difficulty urinating. Quite often, patients are faced with nightly calls to the toilet. Interestingly, there is no pain at the same time, which is one of the main differences between cancer and prostatitis and adenoma. This is due to the fact that with oncology, the organ does not become inflamed. Symptoms of a general nature, such as chronic fatigue, apathy, and loss of capacity, are also not always present.

Urination problems are one of the first symptoms of cancer, but are often mistaken for prostatitis.

How is cancer diagnosed?

In most cases, prostate cancer is detected accidentally during a routine examination, or when contacting a doctor in connection with complaints of discomfort in the anus.

To diagnose the disease, the following examinations are shown:

  • blood test for prostatic antigen (PSA),
  • ultrasound examination of the prostate,
  • analysis of prostate secretion,
  • palpation of the prostate
  • organ tissue biopsy.

Palpation of the prostate makes it possible to suspect a malignant process by the nature of changes in the structure of the organ. If cancer is suspected, such an examination is not carried out due to the risk of tissue damage. Nevertheless, it is often due to prostate massage that the doctor receives grounds for referring the patient to a detailed examination of the organ.

A blood test to determine the level of PSA is one of the main diagnostic methods, the results of which are a prerequisite for a biopsy of organ tissues.

Ultrasound of the prostate allows you to suspect a malignant neoplasm, but not to make an accurate diagnosis. If, during an ultrasound examination, dense tissue sections of an uncharacteristic structure are detected, the patient is sent for a biopsy. This procedure involves the collection of a small amount of tissue in the area of ​​the seals for histological analysis. Only this analysis can confirm or refute the diagnosis.

Only histological analysis can confirm or refute suspected cancer

Description of the disease

With this type of ailment, neoplasms appear in the reproductive system of men, namely in the prostate gland. The main function of this organ is the partial production of seminal fluid. The gland accounts for 30% of the produced seminal fluid, it also participates in the process of ejaculation and partly in the process of urination.

Cancer goes through four stages. Each of them has certain symptoms and different test results after examinations.

Particular attention should be paid to prostate cancer of the 2nd degree: life expectancy, or rather, the prognosis for the future, at this stage of the disease, the patient is quite favorable, because, despite the presence of a malignant neoplasm, the tumor does not spread to neighboring organs and there are no metastases. If the patient promptly seeks medical help, he can hear from the doctors a rather promising favorable prognosis.

In most cases, at the second stage of the disease, men have absolutely no symptoms, their health is normal and there are no urological complaints, and it is possible to detect a neoplasm only with a scheduled examination.

How long does the disease develop

Cancer is a disease that slowly progresses. From the moment of appearance to the beginning of metastasis, at least 10 years pass. If we talk about the prostate, then from the moment of the appearance of the first malignant cells to the appearance of characteristic symptoms, many years also pass, so the disease is quite difficult to diagnose. The patient lives quietly and does not even suspect anything. It also happens that from the moment the first cancer cell appears in the prostate until the onset of symptoms of cancer, a period of 38-39 years passes.

Prostate cancer: ICD-10 code

In newly registered patients with cancerous tumors in 18% of cases it is diagnosed with prostate cancer. With age, the disease is diagnosed more often. From 14 to 46% of men over the age of 50 are diagnosed to detect this disease. And on the territory of the Russian Federation, prostate cancer occupies the 4th place among all oncological diseases. This pathology affects about 19 patients out of 100 thousand.

According to international classification, the disease is in category C61 and subcategory D07.5.

It is assumed that the development of the disease is associated with violations in the endocrine regulation of the genital area. Equally important is the genetic factor.

Assessment of the degree of disease

To date, in all oncology centers, the aggressiveness of cancer cells is assessed according to a unified methodology and the following classification is distinguished:

  • TNM system. According to this technique, the prevalence of neoplasms (T) is determined, how much the lymph nodes are affected - N, and the presence or absence of metastases - (M) is determined. At the second stage of pathology, the presence of a tumor can be determined with a finger examination technique and ultrasound. The most common diagnosis is T2N0M0, which literally means: the second stage, without metastases in the lymph nodes and distant organs.
  • Gleason scale. This scale allows us to assess the degree of morphological changes in cancer cells and to understand how their shape and size have changed. The technique involves comparing two cell samples obtained for this analysis. A biopsy is performed. In the second stage, as a rule, indicators are estimated from 6 to 7.
  • PSA level in the blood. This technique allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy, find out exactly where the cancer cells are. Indicators from 0 to 4.0 ng / ml indicate normal, in the second stage of the same stage, these values ​​reach the level of 20 ng / ml.

Symptomatology

Life expectancy in grade 2 prostate cancer is difficult to determine, since each patient has a different course of the disease. Despite the fact that this stage can be attributed to the initial one, nevertheless, at this stage the number of cancer cells increases significantly. And this becomes the reason that certain symptoms appear, in fact, due to the manifestation of which men go to the doctor.

First of all, problems with urination appear, false desires may appear. The number of urges increases at night, incontinence and discomfort may appear. There are problems with an erection, up to its complete absence. Blood may appear in semen. Some patients note that they begin to have absolutely no reason to lose weight, they feel general weakness.

Non-surgical therapy

Initially, prostate cancer of the 2nd degree is treated without surgery. It can be hormone therapy or electromagnetic radiation.

Radiation therapy involves exposure to cancer cells, which are reduced in size. These methods make it possible to achieve a stable therapeutic effect only under the condition of timely diagnosis of the tumor.

One of the newest treatment methods is brachytherapy. At its core, this is the same radiation therapy for grade 2 prostate cancer, however, radiation is carried out from the inside of the affected organ. Special needles or applicators are introduced into the affected organ, through which radioactive particles enter. The main feature of the technique is that irradiation is only on the affected organ, moreover, malignant cells are destroyed faster, while radiation does not affect the whole organism.

Treatment with hormonal drugs involves medication castration or inhibition of those cells that are sensitive to androgens.

Hormone therapy for grade 2 prostate cancer is carried out using the following drugs:

  • Zoladex. This medicine can reduce the amount of testosterone produced, therefore, and reduce the growth rate of the tumor. The drug in some cases allows you to completely stop the progressing pathology.
  • Paclitaxel Therapy with this drug can reduce the activity of cancer cells, as a result of which they die.
  • "Doxorubicin." This drug stops the production of protein, which is the basis of cancer cells.
  • "Estramustine phosphate." This remedy prevents cell division.

As a rule, along with hormonal therapy, radiation is also prescribed. Thus, it is possible to achieve a faster positive result and lasting effect.

Surgical intervention

However, treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree without surgery is not always possible. The most common and simplest technique is to remove the tumor surgically. At the same time, such an operation can only be carried out if the neoplasm has not crossed the border of the prostate or has not grown into a capsule. In the second or first stage, usually the tumor is not transformed into anything, therefore the effectiveness of such an operation is very high. Moreover, after surgery, the risk of developing a new tumor is minimal.

Surgical Techniques

To date, oncology centers offer a number of operations.

  • Poseidylon prostatectomy. This operation is very traumatic. A tumor with a prostate, seminal vesicles and lymph nodes is removed through an incision in the pubic and navel areas. Such an operation often leads to impotence.
  • Nerve-saving posterior prostatectomy. This operation allows you to save erectile function.
  • A prostate with a tumor can also be removed through an incision in the bladder or in the anus and scrotum.
  • Endoscopic surgery. Its essence is that after a few punctures in the abdominal wall, a tumor is removed. Such an operation is also called laparoscopic.
  • A prognosis for prostate cancer of the 2nd degree is considered quite favorable if the operation is performed using a laser beam. These rays are tuned to a very high intensity, and they are able to excise even the smallest cancerous growths.
  • There is also a robotic technique in which all functions to remove a tumor are performed by a robot, the actions of which are controlled by a doctor.

Which treatment method to choose?

This is perhaps the most difficult question. A lot depends not only on the patient’s state of health, the degree of development of the disease, but also on the professionalism of the doctor himself. Some doctor performs an endoscopic surgery better, and another with a laser. Therefore, life expectancy in prostate cancer of the 2nd degree is determined not only by the timeliness of seeking help, but also by how qualified the doctor will be, how the operation will be performed, how carefully the patient will follow all the doctor's recommendations.

Possible complications after surgery

Despite professionalism and the choice of the most appropriate surgical procedure for a patient in a particular case, a man may still encounter some complications, namely:

  • urinary incontinence
  • postoperative inflammatory processes,
  • impotence
  • complications associated with damage to nerves and blood vessels.

Of great importance is the state of the patient’s immune system.

Key recommendations after treatment

To increase life expectancy in grade 2 prostate cancer, after surgery or conservative treatment, you should adhere to several rules, which the doctor will recommend at discharge:

  • do not have any sexual intercourse for about 2-3 months,
  • avoid sunlight for at least 6 months, since it is ultraviolet rays that can trigger the growth of new cancer cells,
  • attend all prescribed physiotherapeutic procedures and exercise therapy,
  • to activate the immune system switch to protein nutrition.

Without fail, you will have to undergo a scheduled examination with a doctor.

Diet after treatment

Nutrition for prostate cancer of the 2nd degree can be adjusted depending on the operation. The diet in such cases is heterogeneous and largely depends on the well-being of the patient.

The patient's diet should contain protein foods: fish and meat, but not fatty varieties. It is better to steam them or boil them. Sour-milk products must be present, but provided that the patient does not have problems with the intestines, there is no upset stomach. Also in the diet should be present fruits and vegetables.

In the presence of diarrhea, which often occurs after irradiation, you can drink a decoction of bird cherry, an infusion of pomegranate peels or oak bark. You can drink pomegranate juice. Rice porridge is suitable, which will not only calm diarrhea, but also reduce the feeling of nausea.

In addition, foods high in iron should be in the diet. Such products include: buckwheat, beef liver, grains of oats, corn and wheat. Tomatoes, green tea and cabbage are recommended for use.

In order to increase the life expectancy in grade 2 prostate cancer, you will have to abandon the use of animal fats and fried meat, especially red. Avoid eating foods that contain zinc, calcium, and take folic acid. It is better to completely abandon the pickles.

Of alcoholic beverages, red wine is allowed.

Forecast and Statistics

Will grade 2 prostate cancer progress? Life expectancy with such a disease largely depends on the treatment tactics. If the patient has removed the prostate along with the lymph nodes, then in 82-90% of cases, men live another 10-15 years.

Radiation therapy can extend life to 10 years in 96-98% of patients. However, if the disease cannot be stopped and it will progress, then only 80% of patients have a chance of a positive outcome.

In general, timely seeking medical help gives a fairly high chance of survival. Approximately 90% of all patients who have revealed a second stage of pathology can expect a positive outcome.

How many live with prostate cancer metastases? As a rule, there are no metastases in the second stage of the disease, but if they appear, then the prognosis is not promising. Only 29% of patients survive to 5 years after treatment. Metastases can be said to instantly penetrate all organs, settling on the liver, heart, lungs and even bones. These secondary foci of cancerous tumors lead to disturbances in the functioning of these organs. The man’s condition is rapidly deteriorating: he is tormented by severe pain against the background of intoxication.

Instead of output

To date, prostatitis is one of the most common diseases in men. It is prostatitis in most cases that leads to the development of cancer, from which, according to statistics, 7 out of 10 patients die. In view of this, every man must undergo regular examination by a urologist, pay attention to the state of his body. As soon as there was an uncomfortable sensation in the perineum or scrotum, problems appeared with urination, an erection - you should immediately consult a doctor.

Stages of the disease

A prostate tumor initially grows very slowly. She less aggressive compared to other forms of cancer. Between 1 stage of the disease and 2 years can pass. This does not mean that you can delay the treatment of the disease after detection. The fact is that a tumor can produce metastases that minimize the patient's chances of survival.

The prostate gland consists of separate zones or lobes. By the degree of their defeat the degree of prostate cancer is determined by a tumor:

  1. The disease is at the beginning of its development. There are few cancer cells in the gland, and they do not have a significant effect on its functioning.
  2. At this stage, cancer cells become much larger. They have not yet left the prostate gland, but have already begun to exert a noticeable effect on the well-being of the patient.
  3. This degree of prostate cancer is characterized by impaired function of the prostate gland. The patient's well-being is much worse. High probability of metastasis.
  4. Metastases penetrated various organs of the patient. This degree of cancer is the most severe. The prognosis of patient survival is negative.

Prostate Cancer, Grade 2 consists of two stages of tumor development: 2-a and 2-b. The difference between these stages is the number of cancer cells within the gland and the number of lobes affected by the tumor.

When making a diagnosis, it is not enough for the doctor to identify the stage of the disease. The main task of the doctor is to determine the degree of cancer on a 5-point Gleason scale. The higher the score, the worse the prognosis of survival.

The main signs of prostate cancer 2 degrees

To the doctors of patients come with the following set of manifestations characteristic of this disease:

  1. Bladder problems. A man often starts going to the toilet at night.
  2. Impotence.
  3. General unexplained weakness.
  4. Significant weight loss.
  5. Blood in urine and semen. In this case, the man does not experience any pain.
  6. Sex without orgasm.

Despite specific symptoms most cases of prostate tumors are detected by chance. The patient came to the doctor with one problem, and found out about another - cancer. Regular medical examinations can detect the disease in the very early stages. This is especially important for men whose age exceeds 40 years.

Establishing diagnosis

To determine prostate cancer, doctors resort to the following diagnostic methods:

  • Rectal palpation. Cancer can be detected by compaction of the gland parenchyma.
  • Ultrasound of the prostate gland. The device shows the areas of altered cells well.
  • Biopsy. This is a clarifying, mandatory research method. It allows you to make a diagnosis with 100% accuracy.
  • Definition of PSA. This is an additional test that allows you to clarify the stage of development of the disease.
  • CT and MRI. These devices allow you to clarify the location, dimensions and nature of tumors.

The use of all these diagnostic methods allows you to classify the ailment, determine its degree and choose the best method of treatment.

Life expectancy

As mentioned above, nhorno survival depends from the assessment of the degree of the disease and it is expressed as a percentage. At the same time, doctors do not talk about the general life expectancy of the patient, but about a certain time period. Most often it is 5 or 10 years.

In each case prostate cancer develops with individual features. Despite this, if the treatment of the disease begins at stage 2 of the disease, then the doctors make a favorable prognosis. Over the next 5 years after diagnosis, the survival rate is 100%.

what concerns life expectancy, here the prognosis depends entirely on how the patient will receive treatment, on his age and the presence of concomitant diseases. According to statistics, more than 90% of patients with grade 2 prostate tumors are completely cured.

Treatment methods

To fight with prostate cancer of the 2nd degree The following methods are applied:

  • Surgical treatment.
  • Radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Ultrasound Therapy
  • Hormone therapy.
  • Drug treatment.

They are may apply both comprehensively and individually. The choice of a method is determined by a number of parameters:

  • The age of the patient.
  • The presence of concomitant pathologies.
  • The general condition of the patient.

Ways of treatment

Treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree without surgery can be carried out using the following methods:

  • radiotherapy,
  • chemotherapy,
  • ultrasound therapy
  • hormone therapy
  • treatment with pharmacological agents.

In some cases, doctors prefer surgical intervention. Often, surgical measures can be supplemented by medical procedures. The final choice is made depending on:

  • patient age
  • the presence or absence of concomitant disorders of the body,
  • general condition of the patient.

Surgical treatment

Surgery is considered the most effective way to fight cancer. However, along with the oncological cells, the prostate gland itself is also removed. Modern technologies make it possible to carry out such operations using automated surgical systems, due to which the time and complexity of the procedure are reduced.

Today, there are several ways to perform surgery for prostate cancer:

  • access to the prostate is achieved through a longitudinal type incision in the lower abdomen and bladder. At the end of the procedure, the tissues are sutured back and the urethra is drained to normalize urination. Over the next week, the functioning of the bladder stops
  • surgeons make an incision in the area between the scrotum and the anus. This method is recognized as unreasonably time-consuming, so it is chosen very rarely,
  • the most gentle method is considered laparoscopy. The prostate gland is achieved through automated surgical systems. Free access to the organ is provided through small incisions in the lower abdomen.

At the end of the operation, the man undergoes a mandatory drug recovery, which includes:

  • taking narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics,
  • taking antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs,
  • cleaning drainage with antiseptic drugs.

On the Internet you can find many positive reviews regarding such treatment. The author of one of them recently returned from the clinic, where he had a tumor removed along with the prostate. According to Oleg, 35, recovery from surgery was relatively easy and painless. Upon discharge to the man, all the necessary examinations were carried out, as a result of which it turned out that there were no complications and problems. In general, the patient was satisfied with the procedure and the fact that it was carried out in a timely manner.

Radiotherapy

The presented method belongs to the category of non-operative measures and consists in irradiating the affected area. The purpose of the radiation used is to prevent the multiplication and destruction of cancer cells. In some cases, doctors use radiotherapy in combination with surgical measures, thereby significantly increasing their effectiveness.

To conduct the procedure under consideration, a linear accelerator is used. This device effectively removes the tumor itself and metastases. In addition, it prevents the growth of the neoplasm. It should be noted that the lymph nodes also fall under the influence of radiation, so one session usually lasts no more than 15 minutes.

One type of radiotherapy is brachytherapy. Due to the presented procedure, the radioactive components enter the tumor itself. It is easy to guess that it is the direct effect on the malignant formation and the absence of influence on the tissue not affected by the cancer that explains its high effectiveness. During brachytherapy, the patient is under general anesthesia.

58-year-old George from Minsk shares his impressions of such treatment. The man says that recent tests showed elevated PSA levels. He underwent an additional examination with a biopsy, as a result of which a tumor was detected in the prostate, which had time to metastasize. Doctors asked the patient a choice between surgery and brachytherapy. George preferred the second option and did not regret it. According to him, it is impossible to call such treatment simple and painless, however, with its help, the cancer receded.

Treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree without surgery

Is it possible lgrade 2 prostate cancer without surgery? Yes it is possible. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, ultrasound exposure and hormone therapy are excellent for this. However, doctors insist on surgical treatment, as it gives the best results in the shortest possible time. But time plays a huge role in the treatment of any oncology.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a procedure in which cancer cells are destroyed by special toxic substances. An interesting fact is that it is stage 2 of prostate cancer that is extremely sensitive to chemical effects of this kind.

Despite this, this treatment is not used as often. This is because it involves a lot of side effects, one of which is a negative effect on healthy cells.

Hormone therapy

One of the factors influencing the development of oncological processes in the prostate is the hormonal background in the body. This is because the growth rate of the neoplasm is directly proportional to the amount of testosterone.

Due to hormone therapy, doctors manage to reduce the concentration of this type of hormones and, thereby, stop the growth of the tumor. To conduct this kind of therapy, specialists use the following drugs:

  • Lucrin, Diferelin, Dekeptil, similar in composition to pituitary hormones. With their help, a temporary effect of therapeutic castration is created,
  • Anandron, Flucin, Casodex, which suspend the functioning of adrenal hormones,
  • Fosfestrol, Firmagon, Diethylstilbestrol, which reduce the concentration of testosterone in the body.

Drug therapy

Treatment with drugs involves the use of drugs, which include monoclonal bodies and special viruses.

As for the former, in their content they are close to antibodies produced by the body in order to eliminate cancer. Most often, the country producing such funds is the United States, which explains their rather high cost. It is the high cost that causes the infrequent use of such medicines in our country.

Virusotherapy, in turn, allows you to influence cancer cells by dissolving them. Such drugs are particularly effective in the first two stages of the development of oncology.

Conclusion

Prostate cancer grade 2 - this is a treatable disease. To save your life, you only need to turn to doctors for help on time and follow the following simple rules after treatment:

  • Be regularly examined by a urologist.
  • Healthy food.
  • To refuse from bad habits.

This is enough for a normal and long life.

Features of tumor formation and growth

Prostate cancer (the term "adenocarcinoma" or "prostate carcinoma" is acceptable) is a cell malignant neoplasm, the growth of which occurs against the background of a violation of the cellular ability of the glandular epithelium to differentiate and changes in its structure. This type of tumor refers to slowly progressive types of cancer, and the first symptoms of pathology can appear only a few years after the onset of the primary malignant focus. A carcinoma can be localized both in the organ itself and form multiple metastases in tissues that are not in the immediate vicinity of the affected gland.

A distinctive feature of prostate adenocarcinoma is the relatively rapid rate of metastasis: if it can take several years from the appearance of the first malignant cells to the formation of a tumor, then the period of development of the pathology from the second to the third to fourth stages proceeds several times faster. The formation of distant secondary lesions occurs predominantly through the hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways, that is, damaged (tumor) cells enter the microvasculature and, together with the liquid structures (blood, lymph), are distributed throughout the body, forming multiple metastases.

The structure of a prostate cancer tumor may vary depending on what type of tissue predominates in its composition.

Table. Types of prostate carcinoma in structure.

Tumor typePredominant fabric
The ratio of fibrous fibers and functional malignant cells is approximately the same.

Functionally active malignant cells formed by parenchymal tissue predominate in the structure.

More than 50% of the formation consists of connective tissue.

Medullary tumors of the prostate with a high degree of differentiation in most cases retain the functions of the original tissue and can produce mucous secretions.

Note! The most dangerous type of prostate cancer is undifferentiated tumors, which are almost impossible to determine tissue affiliation.

Malignant lesion 2 degrees: features

Cancer of the prostatic gland of the 2nd degree is a pathology that can be treated quite well, subject to early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy. The main feature of stage 2 is the absence of distant malignant foci (metastases) in neighboring organs and regional lymph nodes. The tumor itself can have different sizes, but the most favorable prognoses are formed if the size of the formation does not exceed more than 1 prostatic lobule. There is no diffusion of damaged cells outside the prostatic capsule at this stage.

Treatment principle

There are many methods of treating oncology. With a timely diagnosed illness, the chances of recovery are high enough, but not one treatment method gives a 100% guarantee that there will be no relapse in the future.

For treatment, use one of the following methods or a combination of several methods:

  • expectant tactics
  • radiation therapy,
  • organ removal
  • hormone therapy
  • cryotherapy.

With a non-aggressive form of oncopathology, when the disease develops slowly, expectant tactics give a good result, especially in patients older than 75 years. In some cases, lifestyle adjustment, diet therapy and alternative treatment at this age are more effective and safer than surgery or radiation therapy.

How many live with this diagnosis?

Life expectancy with timely detection of the disease (not later than stage 2) is quite high. Carcinoma and adenocarcinoma lend themselves well to various treatment methods, and in some cases, early treatment allows not only a long remission, but also full recovery. In order for the prognosis of further survival to be more than 5-7 years, it is important to undergo a urological examination in time, especially if a man has increased risk factors for the formation of a precancerous condition (for example, chronic and often recurrent diseases of the genitourinary system).

The stage of precancer (pre-tumor phase) is characteristic of most malignant lesions of the prostate. It may have facultative (atypical hyperplasia) or obligate (intraepithelial neoplasia) course, but in all cases, precancerous conditions are a maximum risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma.

Important! Timely diagnosis of precancerous conditions, especially when it comes to elderly and senile patients, significantly increases the chances of successful treatment and the formation of a favorable prognosis of survival. An annual examination by a urologist is one of the most important conditions for the prevention of cancer of the urogenital system in men.

Non-surgical treatment

Treatment of prostate cancer of the 2nd degree without surgery is radiation or hormone therapy. Exposure to radiation reduces the tumor in size and, in most cases, allows to achieve a stable therapeutic effect, but only if the pathology is diagnosed in a timely manner.

Today, brachytherapy is widely used - a method of radiation exposure, carried out from the inside of the affected organ. The impact is carried out by introducing special needles or applicators through which a radioactive microsource is supplied. The advantages of the method are the effect only on the affected tissue. During therapy, the structure of malignant cells is disrupted, as a result of their further proliferation becomes impossible.

Applicators for the introduction of radioisotopes

Hormone treatment for grade 2 prostate cancer involves drug castration or inhibition of cells that are sensitive to the action of androgens.

Diagnostic and clinical criteria for a tumor

In total, 4 stages of prostate cancer are distinguished, which are classified according to clinical and diagnostic criteria.

Table. Stage malignant lesions of the prostate.

Stage (degree)Specific Tumor Marker Index (PSA)The level of cell differentiation on a five-point Gleason scale (followed by a summation of indicators)The defeat of the lymphatic system and the presence of distant lesions (indicated by the abbreviation TNM, where N is the spread to regional lymph nodes, and M is the presence of metastases)
1≤ 10 ng / ml≤ 61-0-0 or 2a-0-0
2A10-20 ng / l≤ 71-0-0 or 2a / 2b-0-0
2BMore than 20 ng / l (any indicators are possible)More than 8 (any indicators are possible)1 (2) -0-0 or 2c-0-0
3Any indicators possibleAny indicators possible3-0-0
4Any indicators possibleAny indicators possible4-1-1 (indicators can be any)

In stage 2 prostate cancer, the tumor is usually small in size, may not be visualized by ultrasound, and may not be detected during palpation. If a man does not receive any corrective and supportive therapy, a slow education growth is possible. A distinctive feature of cancer at this stage is the absence of metastases in other organs and the lymphatic system and the local course (the tumor grows only within the affected organ, without going beyond its capsule).

Folk remedies

Older men can be treated with folk remedies, but only after consulting a specialist. Such methods will not completely eliminate cancer, however, they will help reduce the rate of development of oncology and remove toxins from the body. With a non-aggressive form of prostate cancer, alternative treatment in older men helps prolong the patient's life by an average of 10 years.

  1. Pour a tablespoon of dried hemlock into 250 ml of vodka, insist in a closed container for two weeks. The medicine is taken daily in one small spoon an hour before dinner.
  2. Mix in equal proportions celandine, calendula and oregano. Boil a tablespoon of the mixture in a glass of water for 10 minutes. Take daily a quarter cup.
  3. Pour 20 g of hop cones with a liter of water, cook over low heat for 20 minutes, then wrap in a towel and leave for 5 hours. The broth is taken daily in half a glass after breakfast.
  4. Celandine tincture is prepared from a tablespoon of dried flowers and a glass of vodka. The mixture is insisted for 15 days, and then take 15 drops daily for two weeks.
  5. Pour a large spoonful of fresh willow earrings with two glasses of boiling water and boil for 5 minutes. Take a decoction of a teaspoon twice a day for three weeks.

In the treatment of cancer in older men, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment are often practiced to block the production of male hormones. In this case, folk remedies will help to recover faster after the action of aggressive medications.

It is important to consider that celandine and hemlock are poisonous plants. Treatment with decoctions and tinctures from these herbs should be agreed with the attending physician. This medicine is allowed to take no more than two weeks in a row.

Cancer diet therapy

Diet for stage 2 prostate cancer is aimed at cleansing the body and reducing the load on internal organs. Food should be sparing, heavy food is excluded from the diet - smoked meats, canned food, fried and spicy dishes.

It is important to prevent constipation. Natural vegetable juices are introduced into the diet, providing antioxidant protection of the body - these are carrot, beetroot and cucumber juices. Additionally, you need to eat more fruits and cereals. The diet is enriched with prostatoprotective products - these are pumpkin seeds and oil from them, olive oil, avocados, walnuts, any citruses.

Who can get prostate cancer?

Despite the extensive practice of managing patients with prostate cancer, this group of pathologies is still poorly understood, and it is impossible to reliably determine the etiological predisposition of the tumor in most cases. An analysis of the medical history of patients with prostate cancer leads to the conclusion that most often malignant tumors of the prostatic glands and seminal vesicles are diagnosed in men who have the following risk factors:

  • insufficient intake of vitamins A and E, which are natural factors of protection against some malignant diseases, due to irregular and unbalanced nutrition or endocrinological pathologies,
  • imbalance between androgens and female sex hormones (estrogen)

  • harmful working conditions (work at paint and varnish enterprises, factories that produce rubber products, process heavy metals, etc.),
  • living in an area with adverse environmental conditions and increased background radiation,
  • age-related changes in the functioning of the urinary and reproductive systems (at risk are men over 60)

  • frequent UV exposure,
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system (prostatitis, urethritis, vesiculitis, cavernitis, etc.).

The theory of the genetic predisposition of prostate cancer is constantly being finalized and refined, but now it is necessary to take convincing data from practicing andrologists and urologists: out of all patients diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma, almost 27% of men have a history of blood relatives with the same disease .

Note! Versions that violations in sexual life affect the likelihood of developing cancer of the prostate gland, to date, do not find scientific confirmation. Despite this, specialists do not deny the negative impact of irregular (or, on the contrary, promiscuous) sexual contacts on the functioning of the most important reproductive organs, diseases of which form an increased risk factor for precancerous conditions of the prostate.

When to go to the hospital: alarming symptoms

The second degree of prostate adenocarcinoma is characterized by a mild or completely asymptomatic course, so it is quite difficult to suspect a tumor at this stage. There are no specific (characteristic for this particular disease) symptoms of prostate carcinoma, and various disorders in the functioning of the genitourinary organs are perceived at the stage of primary diagnosis as manifestations of other diseases of the prostate gland, for example, prostate adenoma or prostatitis.

The most typical symptoms of this clinical group are various disorders of urination. This can be frequent (including imperative and false) urges to empty the bladder, a feeling of incomplete emptying, pain during the discharge of the stream or immediately after urination. In case of prostate cancer of degree 2B, when the tumor reaches a significant size and can compress blood vessels and nerve endings, the pain syndrome is moderately expressed. A man may notice pain in the groin, perineum, anus, suprapubic zone, which can mimic an attack of prostatitis, especially if there has already been a history of this disease.

The following changes in well-being should alert the man:

  • the need to strain the abdominal muscles to empty the bladder,
  • slow discharge of the stream (episodes of intermittent urination are possible),
  • discomfort and discomfort during sexual intercourse (especially during ejaculation),
  • spotting from the urethra.

The listed symptoms in the vast majority of cases at stage 2 of prostate cancer are absent or have a minimum intensity, which forms a false idea of ​​his own health in a man and pushes the request for advice. In order not to miss the time and timely detect prostate cancer, which can be treated well in the early stages, it is necessary to undergo an examination by a urologist at least 1 time per year.

Note! Symptoms that are considered common for all types of cancer (pathological weakness, periodic moderate hyperthermia, weight loss, etc.), with a malignant lesion of the prostate gland, appear mainly with carcinoma of the 3-4 degree, when the tumor gives multiple metastases or reaches large sizes, releasing a large amount of toxic substances into the blood.

Can prostate cancer be cured in the second stage?

This is one of the very first and most important questions asked by a doctor in almost 80% of patients when they find out about their diagnosis. It should be noted that grade 2 carcinoma refers to localized types of cancer, therefore, organ-preserving treatment (without removing the prostate gland) can not always be applied. Prostatectomy is today considered the most effective and frequently used cancer treatment at this stage.

In common forms of cancer (with metastases to the lymph nodes or other organs and tissues), such methods of therapy are ineffective, since removing the primary focus will not solve the problem of further destruction of already affected tissues. In elderly men, prostatectomy is also rarely used, since the survival rate of this category of patients is approximately equal to the life indicators of men of reproductive age with actively conducted therapy.

Methods used to treat localized prostate cancer grade 2:

  • irradiation of the affected gland and adjacent lymph nodes in a dosage of up to 70 units of the absorbed dose (gray),
  • local (local) tissue freezing,
  • radioactive radiation (brachytherapy) with the introduction into the formation of drugs with various degrees of radioactivity,
  • focused high-intensity ultrasound therapy.

The duration of one course of therapy can be from 2-3 weeks to 6-10 months.

Modern cancer treatment

An innovative and modern method of non-surgical treatment of prostate cancer in the early stages is the TOOKAD procedure. The most extensive practice of applying this method has been collected in clinics in Israel and Germany, and treatment using this system is possible only at your own expense in specialized paid centers.

The essence of the method is the introduction into the vein of a drug based on highly active deep-sea bacteria that show their activity under the influence of laser radiation. First, the doctor introduces the medicine to the patient, after which the laser wave is irradiated under the control of ultrasound and with the help of an optical fiber optical device. The whole procedure takes no more than 20-25 minutes, and the complete decay of the tumor occurs within 4 hours after treatment. During this time, the patient should be in the hospital under supervision. In the absence of complications, the patient can be discharged home on the first day.

TOOKAD system has many advantages over other types of cancer treatment:

  • the drug has a toxic effect only on affected tissues, without affecting healthy cells,
  • there is no need for radical treatment and the use of surgical methods (removal of the prostate),
  • the whole procedure takes no more than half an hour, after which the patient can be allowed to go home on the same day,
  • high efficiency (recurrence rate after using the TOOKAD method is less than 11.2%).

The only significant drawback of this technique is the high cost - more than 2500 euros.

Video - How to live with prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is an oncological pathology, which is the third most common cause of death from cancer among elderly and senile men. The tumor is successfully treated in the early stages., therefore, it is important to undergo routine examinations in a timely manner and not delay the visit to the hospital in case of possible symptoms of prostate cancer. Life expectancy in grade 2 prostate cancer with timely treatment is almost always more than 5 years after the initial diagnosis of the tumor.

Prostatectomy

Treatment of a malignant tumor in the prostate at stage 2 is proposed to be carried out using prostatectomy. Radical therapy is aimed at the complete removal of affected tissues of the internal organ. Due to this, it is possible to stop the spread of malignant cells and the formation of metastases.

Surgery may have negative consequences for the patient. After radical treatment, patients often have urinary incontinence, the presence of PSA in the blood, as well as sclerosis of the bladder neck. Impotence is no exception.

Transurethral resection

The procedure makes it possible to make urination comfortable and normal.

Another treatment option for a tumor in the prostate that undergoes stage 2 development is transurethral resection. This procedure allows to improve the outflow of urine, since patients have problems with this function.

The main indications for the procedure are the following conditions:

  1. The presence of cystostomy drainage.
  2. An increase in the residual amount of urine in the bladder.
  3. Indications revealed during rectal examination or tissue biopsy.

Transurethral resection is not prescribed for patients in serious condition. It is forbidden to contact such therapy in acute inflammatory pathologies, as well as stenosis of the vesicourethral segment. These contraindications must be taken into account by the attending physician.

Radiation and hormone therapy

Stage 2 prostate cancer can be treated with hormone and radiation therapy, which often provide a positive prognosis of recovery.

There are two ways to perform radiation therapy:

  • Remote. Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis. A full course of therapy averages about 8 weeks. During remote exposure, patients may experience complications in the form of radiation sickness and serious damage to healthy tissues. Such risks should be considered.
  • Brachytherapy During the procedure, the effect occurs exclusively on prostate tissue affected by oncology. A radioactive substance is introduced into it, performing the main task of therapy. Tumor decay occurs within 60 days after brachytherapy.

Radiation therapy after its implementation can leave unpleasant consequences. All the risks of the patient must warn his doctor. After this, the patient himself decides whether he will agree to treatment. Among the most common complications of a therapeutic procedure are conditions such as impaired urination, decreased potency, and damage to the tissues of the rectum.

According to a special principle, hormone therapy acts, which is usually customary to be prescribed as an auxiliary course. Treatment of stage 2 cancer without surgery in this case is aimed at reducing the amount of testosterone that is produced by the glandular organ.

Under the influence of hormonal treatment, a man often manifests erectile dysfunction and arthralgia. The use of antiandrogens allows to reduce the likelihood of such a complication. Drugs in this group have a minimal effect on sexual function.

Life expectancy and prognosis

Detection time is one of the most important factors in case of an ailment: the sooner you start treatment, the greater the chance of a positive outcome

Stage 2 prostate cancer is not a sentence. Life expectancy with such a diagnosis is high if the patient is involved in the treatment of the disease. Most doctors are of the opinion that is confirmed by thousands of men.

As mentioned earlier, with such a development of a malignant tumor in the prostate gland, a favorable prognosis awaits a man. The specialist selects the optimal treatment for him, which allows you to completely get rid of the pathological process. There is a high probability of achieving a full recovery.

Do not forget that cancer can recur. It is in the interest of each patient to try to prevent the re-development of a malignant tumor in his body, since the next fight against it can have less comforting results.

The most important thing in diagnosing stage 2 prostate cancer is to prevent its transition to the next stage of development. At this point, the malignant cells will begin to affect the neighboring lymph nodes and internal organs. In this case, dealing with the disease is much more difficult. Because of this, the likelihood of a favorable treatment outcome is reduced.

Watch the video: Prostate Cancer Grade and What it Means (February 2020).

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