Male circumcision: pros and cons, is it worth it, what is the use of this procedure, and what is bad about it
With this surgical intervention, a number of goals are pursued:
- National - in some countries, circumcision is accepted, after the procedure, the child is considered a man,
- Religious is part of religious teaching.
- Shiite Muslims believe that a man with an uncircumcised member cannot make a pilgrimage to Mecca,
- among the Jews, circumcision is a mandatory procedure. Through him, Abraham made an alliance with God.
- Sexual - the duration of the sexual act increases,
- Medical - congenital anomalies in the structure of the male member are eliminated,
- Hygienic - may be the only option for the prevention of inflammatory diseases of the penis in hot countries. Especially, in the absence of water and with the danger of sand falling under the foreskin (prepuce).
The operation has positive and negative aspects: there are more of the first, but the doctors did not express a clear “yes”.
This is a surgical procedure and should only be done in a clinic setting.
Factors in which doctors recommend circumcision.
- If in infancy in almost all boys the head is completely or partially closed by the foreskin and does not come out of it. With age, it should gradually open up to full exposure.
- If by the age of 14 this has not happened, phimosis is diagnosed, which is very dangerous for adults, because it affects the process of emptying the bladder.
- If with mild degrees of the disease a man feels discomfort during urination, then in difficult cases the process may simply stop. An abnormality is treated surgically.
- A complication of a previous disease, in which, when trying to expose the head, prepuce squeezes it and blocks the access of blood, tissues can die out without quick medical attention.
- Paraphimosis, it is also called the "noose" - a dangerous condition that requires immediate surgical intervention.
Additional indications for circumcision
- With injuries of the tissues of the foreskin as a result of their independent healing, scarring may occur that will interfere with normal intimate relationships.
- Recurring sexually transmitted infections.
- Cases where a man suffers from regular premature ejaculation.
- In men after 60–70 years, the skin becomes flabby, and prepuce closes the urinary canal, complicating the process of urination.
The functions of the foreskin
- The part of the skin that is removed during circumcision has important functions for men. In an adult, the surface area of the prepuce is 37 square centimeters, which is about 1/3 of the length of the entire penis.
- There is a crease on the uncircumcised penis, which expands when it increases. It plays an important role in keeping the foreskin clean.
- The foreskin protects the head. Under the fold, fluid is produced, thanks to which the mucous membrane of the penis remains tender and sensitive.
In a man with a circumcised member, the mucous tissue on the organ grows and forms several layers of skin. She becomes rougher than before - this explains the long duration of sexual intercourse.
How it's done
Circumcision was performed by priests:
- “Brit are sweet” procedure - circumcision of the Jews according to the covenant is carried out on the 8th day of the boy’s life,
- Muslims do not have strict regulation of the age of the Chitan.
Today, circumcision is done within the walls of medical institutions in order to avoid complications and undesirable consequences. The procedure is as follows:
- For babies, anesthesia is not used, for boys after two months and up to 14 years old they use general anesthesia, adults are given using local painkillers.
- The penis is cleaned with disinfectants.
- The base is clamped with a plait.
- Anesthetics such as lidocaine are injected into the penis tissue with a needle.
- The foreskin is pulled and removed. In world clinics, individual patterns are practiced that exactly repeat the shape of the head of the penis, removal is most effective.
- The skin is removed with scissors or a scalpel.
- At the end, sutures from catgut are applied to the skin, which after the procedure do not need to be removed - during healing, the threads themselves absorb.
- The penis is wrapped in a sterile medical bandage.
Sometimes they are cut off with clamps: the skin is pulled, fixed with special devices that impede the access of blood, after which the tissue soon dies.
The period of complete healing depends on the rate of regeneration of the body, usually the sutures are tightened after 2-5 weeks. Many are afraid that the seam may go apart, although this complication is very rare.
For quick and successful healing care is required:
- Before removing the seams, it is necessary to moisten the bandage thoroughly with hydrogen peroxide, so as not to injure the adhering seam with adhered tissue.
- When a uterus appears, the wound is lubricated with antiseptic ointments, washed with potassium permanganate.
- The first couple of days of dressing should be done 3–6 times a day, after improvement of the condition of the suture, once a day. With normal healing, dressings can be discontinued after 10-12 days.
- Oral administration of methyluracil to speed healing.
- If puffiness appears, make baths for the penis from a glass of water and a teaspoon of salt.
- For 2 months, refrain from intimate relationships.
Pros and cons
And yet, what is circumcision? Religious atavism without any scientific justification or hygiene and medicine requirements? Today, many men decide to undergo surgery to increase the duration of sexual intercourse, and for religious reasons. The opinions of doctors were divided diametrically opposite, but they are convinced of one thing - it is necessary to decide on circumcision carefully, since this is a surgical intervention that can have irreversible consequences.
Not to be confused with castration.
What is circumcision
This is the procedure for circumcision of the foreskin (prepuce). The operation has a thousand-year history. Initially, it was carried out in Africa, the Arab countries - in hot places where there were problems with water, respectively, with body hygiene. Lack of foreskin is a good prevention of inflammation. On the naked head of the penis, bacteria do not accumulate and do not multiply.
Circumcision later became a religious rite among peoples professing Judaism and Islam. In Israel, it is held on the 8th day after birth, the ceremony is called "Brit Mila." But circumcision of adult men is also possible. It is made in the process of giyur - the transition to Judaism.
Peoples practicing Islam conduct the procedure for older boys.
Depending on the traditions of a particular country, the ceremony takes place from 3 to 14 years. But Islamic scholars have argued that the best time for circumcision is the 7th day after birth.
In childhood, surgery is relatively simple. But the procedure for adult men or adolescents is much more complicated. This is a complete surgical intervention. It is carried out under local anesthesia or general anesthesia. Circumcision has its own indications, contraindications, pros and cons.
What is circumcision and what are its goals? i
Male circumcision is a surgical procedure that originates from ancient times and is actively used to this day. Having religious roots and deep historical significance, circumcision did not become a relic of the past, but, on the contrary, is actively used in the 21st century. The medical name for this surgical procedure is circumcision.
For lack of military service, the ancient peoples of various religions (Christians, Muslims, Jews) used circumcision as an integral part in the formation of a real man. Depending on the religious instructions or customs of the people, circumcision was performed in different conditions and ages, from infancy to advanced age - according to the Bible, Abraham made circumcision at 99 years old.
A woman, depending on the stimulation of different parts of the body, may experience different types of orgasms.
So, in the modern sense, circumcision is the excision of the foreskin of the penis of a man with one of the following goals:
The advantages of male circumcision
The decision to circumcise the foreskin should be made consciously, regardless of whether the man or the boy’s parents take it. The following arguments argue for removal of prepuce:
- decreases the chance of infections, including STDs,
- the duration of sexual intercourse increases
- simpler intimate hygiene,
- the appearance of the penis improves.
Reduced risk of infection
Pathogenic bacteria and viruses most often affect the foreskin, as it is easily injured. The benefit of circumcision is that the absence of a skin “bag” creates adverse conditions for the development of infection. This applies to bacteria, viruses, protozoa. In the medical world, there is an opinion that circumcision reduces the likelihood of HIV infection.
Surgery is the prevention of certain types of genital cancer caused by viruses.
For women in this regard, there is also benefit. Cervical cancer causes an oncogenic strain of human papillomavirus, which is transmitted sexually. In circumcised, such a virus is detected much less often. This means that removal of prepuce is also cancer prevention.
Where did it come from?
Although most people think that circumcision came along with Islam or Judaism, this or similar procedures were carried out much earlier - probably fifty and even seventy thousand years ago. Scientists continue to argue about the reasons for such long-standing interventions. It is possible that in hot and dry climates (in countries like Egypt, Mexico, and central Australia) circumcision served as a preventive measure against diseases associated with grains of sand falling under the foreskin.
Later among the Muslims, circumcision became a universal practice, although there are no prescriptions in the Qur'an - The main argument in favor of the procedure (in addition to the tradition itself) is the improvement of hygiene “Cleanliness” in all its manifestations - a fundamental aspect of Islam.
Why is the foreskin needed?
Nobody knows for sure. Since a set of male or female genital organs in an embryo develops from the same "primordia", the head and trunk of the penis are considered an analogue of the clitoris, and the foreskin is considered an analogue of the labia. Most likely, during the course of human evolution, it served as a defense against the external environment. In the animal kingdom, only primates have foreskin.
How many men are "circumcised"?
It is believed that up to 38% of men in the world went through the circumcision procedure, in Islamic countries this figure reaches almost 100% - but it is close to that, for example, in Nigeria, where half the population professes Christianity. 71% of men are circumcised in the USA, more than 20% in the UK, Australia and Belgium, in Russia - about 11%.
According to Vigen Malkhasyan, in Russia the procedure is most often performed according to indications, which include phimosis, genital warts, sclerosing lichen, relapsing balanoposthitis.
Is anyone against it?
Opponents of circumcision call themselves intactivists (from intact - "intact, unscathed, intact"). On their side are the arguments that both hygiene and the possibility of preventing infections are now much better than thousands of years ago, that is, the medical or hygienic aspects of the intervention cannot be justified. Some equate circumcision with genital mutilation. Among celebrities, there are also inactivists: this Cameron Diaz, Russell Crowe and Alicia Silverstone.
A complete ban, as a rule, leads to the fact that operations begin to be carried out clandestinely, often by lay people and in completely inappropriate conditions. Vigen Malkhasyan notes that in Russia ritual circumcision, unfortunately, is sometimes done in mosques, synagogues and even at home. Although this operation cannot be called very complicated and usually everything goes fine, you can not compare it with manicure or ear piercing: the child’s body can react pathologically, for example, to anesthesia. In the surgical room of the medical institution there will be access to emergency care, and at home the risk is much greater.
This is useful?
As Malkhasyan notes, most medical data now support the benefit of circumcision, and the risk of complications remains an argument against them, they rarely and even more often are serious, and in most cases they easily pass and do not require repeated interventions. Now there is evidence that circumcision has a protective effect and reduces the risk of many infections.
For example, a meta-analysis of three randomized trials conducted in Uganda, Kenya and South Africa from 2002 to 2006 showed that circumcision in heterosexual men reduces the risk of HIV infection by 38–66%. The surface layers of the mucous membrane of the penis contain many Langerhans cells and CD4 / CD8 T cells - these are targets that are attacked by HIV. After circumcision, the mucosa of the glans penis coarsens, becomes less susceptible to microtraumas and impedes the penetration of the virus. Therefore, major experts and organizations such as WHO and UNAIDS (the joint United Nations program on HIV and AIDS) consider circumcision as a promising method for the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Circumcision is also indicated for people with frequent, recurring inflammation of the glans penis (balanitis): it is known that the contents of the space between the glans and the foreskin are a breeding ground for microorganisms. This was confirmed in a study of the microflora of the penis head before and after circumcision. A 2006 meta-analysis showed that circumcision is associated with a much lower risk of syphilis, chancre, and herpes virus infection. A 2010 study confirmed that circumcision reduces the risk of infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 by 28%, in the group of circumcised men the incidence of trichomoniasis and chlamydia was lower. Finally, the procedure reduces the risk of not only sexually transmitted infections, but also common urinary tract infections (cystitis and urethritis), including in young children.
How does this affect sex?
Most often, circumcision is done in childhood, and only those who decided on it in adulthood can compare sex life before and after - for medical reasons, for aesthetic reasons or after switching to another religion. In the publication Vice, four men talk about their experience - and only one of them says that he is unhappy with the result. In adulthood, the procedure is more difficult to carry out (if it takes no more than a minute for an infant, then for an adult male it takes 30–45 minutes), and the healing process takes longer. In addition, stitches can cause severe pain due to spontaneous erections.
Nevertheless, most often men who have undergone circumcision in adulthood say that the quality of sexual pleasure does not suffert, although the sensations change: stimulation of the penis head becomes more comprehensive, despite a gradual decrease in sensitivity after an initial sharp increase.A psychologist who circumcised only forty years old told the Australian publication MyBodyandSoul that in childhood and adolescence he felt uncomfortable in the locker rooms due to the dissimilarity to others, moreover, according to him, maintaining a good level of hygiene without circumcision is much more difficult. He notes that his life has become much simpler, and nothing has changed in terms of sexual pleasure.
Men living in the UK also did not show any negative effects of circumcision on sexual function. Finally, in 2013, a large systematic review of publications on this topic was published; the authors selected thirty-six articles describing studies involving more than 40 thousand men. Highest quality data confirmed that circumcision did not adversely affect sexual function, sensitivity, sensations during sex, or satisfaction.
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Do I need to circumcise a man in adulthood? Many decide on this procedure during the adoption of certain religions - Islam and Judaism. In hot climates, surgical intervention is also dictated by pragmatic goals - high temperatures increase the rate of bacterial reproduction, especially in such delicate parts of the body.
Same circumcision is an advantage for men suffering from rapid ejaculation, as this procedure prolongs the time of intercourse.
Circumcision Medical Indications
Many pathological changes that violate the outflow and blood flow to the genital organ and provoke inflammation require surgical correction. Circumcision is mandatory for some medical reasons.
Grounds for circumcision:
- trauma - damage to the dermis of the penis,
- acute balanoposthitis - inflammation of the skin of the penis,
- phimosis - narrowing of the ring of the preputial sac,
- paraphimosis - pinching of the head.
A short bridle also gives many men the discomfort associated with painful tension and incomplete opening of the foreskin ring.
Male circumcision - pluses
Elimination of the preputial sac helps a man gain certain benefits.
- Aesthetics. The appearance of the penis after removal of the prepuce bag improves, especially if the foreskin was too long and turned into a kind of "proboscis". In Western countries, most boys undergo circumcision, so erotic films have a fashion for circumcised men.
Wrinkled skin can repel some of the fair sex both in terms of the overall realization of sexual contact and additional stimulation of a man with oral sex.
Sex with circumcision and without circumcision: according to a survey in Canada, women are more likely to have a blow job if the man has no foreskin, and in the United States, most Americans are negative about the presence of the foreskin in a man as such. Hygiene. After circumcision, there is no chance of inflammation in the head, because the bag is removed, and the remains of urine, sperm, smegma do not linger for a long time on the surface of the penis.
With every visit to the shower, due to the openness of the skin, physiological fluids are easily washed off. Likewise, there is no unpleasant odor that can occur when the foreskin is pulled back in men who wash their heads irregularly. Influence on sexual intercourse. The pre-sac protects the sensitive part of the penis - the head - from external mechanical stress.
After excision of the foreskin it is substantially roughened, therefore According to statistics, the duration of sexual intercourse in circumcised men is higher. Here is one of the advantages of male circumcision. Disease Prevention
Men who have been circumcised are less likely to have sexually transmitted infections., since the risk of reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms on the surface of the genital organs is minimal (while the accumulated smegma has a breeding ground for bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases).
The roughening of the skin equally creates a more powerful barrier to the penetration of viruses, while the sensitive part of the uncircumcised penis is more likely to be traumatized - the appearance of tears and cracks.
Fact. Cancer of the genital organs in Muslims and Jews practically does not occur precisely due to the lack of foreskin. Think again - do you need circumcision? The connection between circumcision and AIDS. Australian scientists, studying the spread of HIV on the African continent, concluded that uncircumcised men are at higher risk of infection. The process of transmission of the virus is several tens of times higher in those countries where circumcision is not performed or is carried out, but rarely enough.
The reason is the high probability of the virus entering the foreskin, in which it, having multiplied, enters the bloodstream. A study of infected men also indicates that most of them are uncircumcised.
So, is it worth doing circumcision?
Other positive aspects of excision of the foreskin.
- the risk of pyelonephritis and cystitis is reduced by 10 times,
- the number of bacteria in the inguinal zone is reduced by a third,
- the risk of developing prostate cancer is reduced by 45%.
Now you know what is useful and what are the advantages of circumcision in men. Let's talk about the cons.
Cons of the circumcision procedure
Circumcision has hidden pitfalls that some men may not like.
- The size. When the flesh is removed, the “dimensions” of dignity do not decrease, but visually the organ can be perceived less. The problem can be solved by removing hair in the inguinal zone, due to which it is possible to artificially make up for the loss in size.
- Postoperative discomfort. Head coarsening process - uncomfortable procedure: even a jet of water or contact with underwear causes a tolerable, but still pain. Intercourse during this period is impossible, and due to insufficient wound healing, the risk of infection increases.
- Aesthetics. Some women like exclusively uncircumcised men, because in their perception this section of the penis emphasizes natural brutality. However, this aspect can be attributed to subjective factors that depend individually on each partner.
- Hygiene. The accumulation of harmful microorganisms after removal of the bag in the intimate zone disappears, but another problem may appear - excessive dryness of the skin of the head.
A side effect of circumcision appears immediately after the operation, when the adjacent skin tissue disappears, which naturally saturates the dermis.
For this reason, a man will have to use moisturizers for several months or even years. Then the body adapts, and the use of cosmetics is usually not required.
Total. Circumcision - for or against?
So do circumcision or not? The absence of problems with the genitourinary sphere does not oblige a man to decide on a surgical procedure due to time costs and general irrationality. It makes sense only if there are serious sexual problems associated with a short duration of sexual intercourse.
Not everyone needs to be circumcised. It is possible to decide on an operation to give the inguinal zone more aesthetics or, if desired, reduce the duration of daily care procedures associated with penis hygiene and foreskin.
To decide whether or not - everything is individual and depends on the goals pursued by the man.
A partial compromise may be a partial excision of the foreskin: the skin area is significantly shortened, allowing the head to open during an erection, but in the usual position, keep this sensitive part of the penis closed.
Fact. The foreskin transplant experiments were unsuccessful, therefore circumcision is a procedure whose consequences cannot be changed in the future.
Do I need to do circumcision? Interview with a urologist:
Excision of the foreskin is a delicate topic that requires a balanced assessment of all the pros and cons. If you want to go through this procedure, men should not be afraid.
We hope that everyone has received the answer to the question: circumcision is good or bad.
Pleasant and not so consequences - the pros and cons of circumcision
Sex becomes better, and the duration of an intimate act increases. The effect of circumcision on sexual pleasure is difficult to predict, because a man will not be able to say how he would feel if he had a few grams of skin more.
At the same time, frankly unpleasant moments are possible, which urologists often hold back: together with the foreskin, a large piece of epithelium sometimes leaves, which can affect an erection even after healing, if after the operation there is a lot of “extra” skin, the penis will get a red strip, “a scarf” "Girdle head. Only a qualified specialist will be able to correct the mistakes of a colleague. In this case, it is better not to turn to a “scammer”, since the skin reserves in such a delicate place are not infinite.
Those who believe in the elegance of a circumcised member should know that often circumcision turns into ligature fistulas and gross scars. Therefore, the surgeon will have to delicately and delicately stitch the jewelry, avoiding large screeds.
Aesthetes require the preservation of a short bridle, which surgeons often dissect for the convenience of work, but if desired, the patient is kept intact.
Circumcision is allowed if the foreskin has been damaged or its narrowing is observed (phimosis). But in any case, it is necessary to seek the advice of an andrologist before performing this manipulation.
Sly men today choose "incomplete circumcision" - a compromise operable intervention in which the foreskin is only half cut off. The advantage of circumcision is that the operation lasts a few minutes, and after that it requires a timely change of dressings and sutures. The postoperative period takes two weeks, after which the updated organ can be put into business.
What does the statistics say?
Scientists over 10 years of research have found that circumcised men run the risk of catching HIV twice as little. The partners of men with circumcised foreskin are three times less likely to get the papilloma virus, as well as chlamydia and syphilis. Circumcision reduces the risk of urinary tract infections by 10 times. 1 out of 100 thousand uncircumcised men has cancer of the urinary system, circumcision reduces these statistics to zero.
Despite the army of admirers and opponents of this ancient procedure, honed today to perfection, the decision is made either by an adult man or the parents of the baby, weighing the consequences, the pros and cons of circumcision. To dispel doubts, there is little family advice. Do not forget that you can get a qualified consultation if you make an appointment with a urologist or andrologist.
1. Social 1
Some peoples have well-established ceremonies necessary for the "official" transition of a young man to the next stage of his life. For example, boys who went through the circumcision procedure in Judaism or Islam could rightfully be considered men. Other ways to prove your maturity have not been considered at all.
2. Religious 2
From a religious point of view, male circumcision in Jewish, Christian, and Jewish cultures has a different message. Whether it is the Bible, the Holy Testament or the Qur'an, the interpretation and reasons for this procedure will be spelled out in scripture. To date, approximately 30% of the male population has undergone circumcision, of which more than 70% are in accordance with religious customs.
After removal of the foreskin, there is no need to thoroughly wash the accumulated mucous lubricant and dirt from the folds - they are no more. This is precisely what caused the appearance of circumcision many centuries ago. Today it is still relevant, despite the availability of hygiene. Ease of care is not the main reason for surgery, but refers to the advantages of male circumcision.
3. Medical 3
There are not many indications for the procedure - the main reason is phimosis. This disease leads to a narrowing of the foreskin, which negatively affects the daily life of a man - the inability to release (extend) the glans penis. Another common problem solved by circumcision may be premature ejaculation, i.e. ejaculation. Experts disagree on this point: some argue that sensitivity after circumcision is reduced, while others are convinced of the futility of the procedure in terms of prolonging sexual intercourse.
The bed, as Italians say, is the poor man’s opera.
Sex is like money: having it is good, talking about it is vulgar.
From boys and girls we expect completely different behaviors. This difference can be expressed in a nutshell. We say to the boys: “Do it!”, To the girls - “Do not do this!”.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Each person has their own ideas about the beauty of the body. For many, the skinned head of the penis looks ugly. For this reason, circumcision is performed by many adult men who seek beauty in everything. And the mere desire to improve the aesthetics of the body is considered a sufficient basis for surgical intervention.
Disadvantages of circumcision
Considering the benefits and harms of the operation, it is necessary to soberly assess the shortcomings. Few people think about them before the procedure. Each doctor can highlight the following disadvantages of circumcision:
- too dry skin - requires more thorough care, moisturizing the head of the penis,
- the risk of developing postoperative complications, infection,
- the possibility of error during the operation,
- increased likelihood of injury, as the natural protection is removed,
- head friction pain on clothes,
- decreased severity during intercourse.
Before circumcision, the doctor must notify the patient of all the pros and cons of the procedure. But the decision is made by the man, evaluating the arguments for and against.
How is the operation
In modern clinics, prepuce is removed with a laser, but many surgeons practice several types of instruments. Anesthesia is required in all cases. Adult patients are shown local anesthesia, adolescents are given general anesthesia.
Next, the foreskin is neatly incised in a circle.If this is done with a laser, blood loss is reduced, the wound is immediately sterilized due to heat exposure. After removing excess skin, the edges of the wound are sutured carefully using absorbable sutures.
In adults, the whole process takes 30 minutes both with phimosis and with intervention for other reasons.
Infants are circumcised faster. Anesthesia is not always used for them because of the risk of anaphylactic shock. This fact causes controversy between doctors, so even babies get local anesthesia.
Recovery after circumcision takes 2 months. It is necessary to regularly do dressings, wear special underwear, and also refrain from sexual intercourse. Be sure to use the medications prescribed by the surgeon. Failure to comply with recommendations entails serious consequences: member deformation, loss of function, infection, necrosis.
Male circumcision: pros and cons
Circumcision, or circumcision, is a surgical procedure, and, like any other operation, it must be taken seriously. Therefore, before deciding to perform manipulations to remove the foreskin, it is necessary to find out all the pros of circumcision, as well as the minuses.
It is better to do this operation in infancy
The essence of male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin, which normally covers the glans penis. The photo shows how the genitals of men look before and after circumcision.
The operation will help to avoid infectious diseases of the penis
In certain ethnic and religious communities, the removal of the foreskin is performed due to the existence of centuries-old traditions. But scientifically proven that circumcision has a number of advantages, confirmed by medical observations. So, the following are the pluses of circumcision of the foreskin:
- The risk of sexually transmitted infections is reduced.
It's no secret that pathogenic microorganisms, once in the foreskin, get good conditions for their further development. Including proved a high probability of sexually transmitted viral infections in men without circumcision, since viruses, including HIV, first settle on the foreskin, and then through microcracks enter the bloodstream.
Normally, smegma accumulates under the foreskin in men, which is good soil for the growth of bacteria, the accumulation of dirt and for the initiation of the inflammatory process. Circulation makes hygienic care of intimate places easier.
- Reducing the likelihood of cancer.
Studies show that circumcision of men and boys prevents the development of malignant tumors. This also reduces the risk of developing prostate and penile cancer.
It is believed that the sooner the intervention is performed, the better for the body.
The explanation lies in the previous paragraphs, since prolonged chronic inflammation in the future can lead to the appearance of cancer.
- Elimination of premature ejaculation.
After the intervention, the glans penis becomes less sensitive. In this regard, the duration of sexual intercourse increases. Circumcision is even recommended as a treatment for premature ejaculation.
Many people believe that circumcision makes men’s genitals more attractive. However, a low type of circumcision can visually reduce the size of the penis.
Egypt - the historical homeland of male circumcision _8212
The first documented evidence about male circumcision was dated to the 2nd millennium BC. These records relate to Egyptian culture and give full reason to consider the Egyptians as the ancestors of the cutting off of the foreskin. Given that this custom cannot be found in the animal kingdom, its origin remains a mystery. It remains only to speculate about the conspiracy theories of ancient women or divine instructions. Despite the mystery of origin, the main goals were clearly identified by the researchers:
Researchers suggest that male circumcision was a rite of sacrifice to the Gods - giving away part of the child's flesh, the parents saved his life. The peoples of that time were far from studying medicine, and therefore deaths were attributed to God's punishment, and not to the absolute non-sterility of the procedure.
3. The rite of passage to men
A boy who has reached adulthood was required to go through this process in order to obtain new rights and transition to adulthood. At that time, painkillers or anesthesia did not exist, so the young men were forced to endure terrible pain for the sake of being able to marry and rightfully be considered adults.
Jews circumcised according to a religious commandment, which is a contract between God and Israel. Interestingly, in the history of Judaism, circumcision has been repeatedly prohibited and even punishable by death. In public games, Jewish youths performed naked on the lists trying to imitate the Greeks.
From here came a rather painful Jewish counter-operation, which visually masked “inferiority” and equated Jewish youths with the Greeks. Today, about 98% of all Jews are circumcised on the 8th day after their birth, hygiene is considered the main reason today.
The Qur'an itself does not contain references to male circumcision, but this procedure is still “desirable” in accordance with the traditions and opinions of Islamic theologians. Depending on nationality, circumcision is performed at different ages, but it is necessary before reaching adulthood: Turks are 8-13 years old, Persians are 3-4 years old, and Arabs are 5-6 years old. The most favorable day is considered the 7th day after the birth of the child.
The first Christians were converted from Judaism, so male circumcision was an integral part of religion. Each youth of the first communities was circumcised. Subsequently, the division of the church into two currents generated great debate about the need for this procedure, which ultimately led to the loss of this tradition. At the moment, only the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox churches have left some Jewish rites, including circumcision before baptism.
Medical Circumcision 3
The foreskin is a double area of the skin that has special glands that secrete smegma. Smegma is a natural discharge that is the body’s protective mechanism against foreign bacteria or particles. They settle on the secretions and are subsequently washed off with water without causing inflammation.
In addition, the skin of the penis and its head are interconnected by adhesions, which “tear” with the growth of the child, facilitating the opening of the foreskin, otherwise surgical intervention (male circumcision) is inevitable.
The foreskin performs three main functions: protective, sensory and immune. A large number of nerve endings gives high sensitivity to the external and external parts of the foreskin. This makes the penis generally more sensitive.
The dense double fold of the skin allows you to freely glide during intercourse, protecting against abrasion, tears and injuries. From the point of view of the immune system, the glands of the foreskin secrete the enzyme lysozyme, which protects against harmful microorganisms.
Inadequate hygiene in the male genital area contributes to the inflammatory process, in which case the foreskin is more harmful than protective. The confined space under the thick layers of the skin is a great place for the development of infections and the growth of bacteria.
Circumcision of the child: the pros and cons of the procedure
Circumcision (scientific circumcision) is one of the oldest surgical operations. In addition to the religious nature, this procedure has medical indications for its implementation.
It is believed that the circumcision procedure is an easier option than stretching the foreskin, which takes more time and effort. Many parents also tend to think so. Only having decided on surgical intervention and having gone through all the stages of this process, often they change their minds not in favor of the operation. Today we will tell you why circumcision is done to a child, describe the minuses and advantages of this procedure.
Why do circumcisions?
Supporters of the operation claim that circumcision of the child must be done for the following reasons:
- Circumcision is an important event in the life of a man. Parents of Eastern countries agree to the operation for religious reasons, maintaining the traditions of their ancestors. For Jews and Muslims, circumcision is a symbol of a holy reunion with God. After circumcision of the foreskin, a man approaches the spiritual, renouncing addiction to the material.
- Man's health. One of the reasons for this is phimosis. The essence of the disease is the inability to expose the glans penis due to narrowing or scarring. Until the age of three, the baby may have a physiological narrowing of the foreskin, which should not cause concern for adults. If the child has such a problem at the age of five, then there is a need for regular examination by a doctor. The doctor will recommend the basics of proper care for the genitals of the baby, explain the sequence of devulsions, which consists in stretching the foreskin. If it is impossible to change the situation in other ways, the doctor recommends circumcision to the child.
- Women Health. Among scientists, there is an opinion that this procedure significantly reduces the risk of infection in a sexual partner. This can be explained by the lack of lubrication (smegma) in men - a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic bacteria.
- Changes in sex life. The possibility of a certain increase in time of the duration of sexual intercourse, which is the result of a decrease in the sensitivity of the glans penis.
- Aesthetic aspect.
The benefits of circumcision
Thus, the undoubted advantage of circumcision is a reduction in the risk of infection with infectious diseases, as well as the possibility of a certain increase in the duration of sexual intercourse.
Studies by American scientists have shown that with circumcision, there is a significant decrease in the likelihood of cancer cells. Since in this case, the risk of developing cancer of the penis is minimized.
Cons of circumcision
Urologists do not have a clear answer to the question of why circumcision is done to a child. Some are of the opinion that this operation is necessary to maintain hygiene and, therefore, such a procedure is necessary for all boys.
There is a completely opposite opinion. Here the emphasis is on nature, which created exactly the structure that is available, and which is unacceptable to change. At the same time, the fact that only circumcision can achieve hygiene is disputed.
We list the main disadvantages of circumcision:
- Contradiction to ethical standards.
- Painful shock. The circumcision procedure is accompanied by severe pain, if it is performed without anesthesia.
- A matter of hygiene. In infants, the head of the penis is cleaned by itself, and after excision of the foreskin, careful care of the head of the penis is necessary, because the folds and depressions of the skin in the corolla and frenum are an ideal place for the reproduction of microbes.
Important points to prepare for circumcision
The child is circumcised only after a full examination.
In preparation for circumcision, the doctor writes out a referral for urine and blood tests to make sure that the child is healthy and there are no contraindications for the operation.
A preliminary test of biological material helps specialists find the best anesthetic to which a small patient will not have an undesirable allergic reaction.
Now, local or general anesthesia is used for the operation. Doctors make a choice taking into account the age of the child and his individual characteristics. A significant role is given to the psychotype of the little man.
More experienced doctors tend to general anesthesia. The emphasis is on the speed of the operation, it takes no more than 20 minutes. The child does not have time to feel pain, but sleeps calmly during the procedure.
After circumcision, absorbable sutures are applied. It is also necessary to carry out dressings. The last dressing is usually done on the 9th day after surgery.
Babies whose age does not exceed two months are circumcised without anesthesia.
Under local anesthesia after treatment with a disinfectant solution, a rubber tourniquet is fixed in the area of the base of the foreskin. Next, an injection of anesthetic is injected into the penis. After that, the penis loses sensitivity and surgery is performed. After pulling and fixing, the foreskin is cut, in a circle it is removed.
Circumcision: the pros and cons of a sensitive issue
Archaeologists claim that this is one of the most common ancient operations. The practice of circumcision was developed by the ancient Egyptians, since they appreciated the benefits of living without infections, itching and sand in delicate places.
Medieval reformers saw the benefits of circumcision in protection against masturbation, and Muslims and Jews actively used this procedure for ritual purposes.
Over the centuries, the tradition of circumcision has changed its religious overtones to aesthetic and preventive.
Urologists have an opinion on this. Pros and Cons from the experts:
- Circumcision performed in childhood is an excellent prevention of oncological diseases, in particular, penile cancer, but this procedure causes severe pain shock in adult men and can have unpleasant psychological consequences, deposited in the child's subconscious.
- After circumcision, daily care becomes easier, but thorough and proper penile hygiene will solve the same problems without surgery.
- Circumcision protects against bacteria that multiply under the influence of residual urine, a moist environment, and smegma.
- The head of the penis during sex is less injured, because it quickly coarsens, losing protection. At the same time, the pleasure of sexual intercourse loses its sharpness, even though the coitus becomes longer.
- The risk of HIV infection, chlamydia, syphilis and even common thrush is reduced.
- Like any operation, circumcision can result in bleeding, blood poisoning, inflammation and, in rare cases, death.
Psychologists and pediatricians pay attention to the importance of circumcision in infancy. Despite the obvious advantages, there are many opponents of operable intervention without human consent.
What you should know about circumcision for every man
Circumcision is one of the oldest surgical practices that people still resort to. The earliest records of her were found in an Egyptian tomb about 2,300 years BC. e.
We did this procedure for different purposes. For example, the Jews, because it is written in the holy book of the Torah: “This is My covenant which you must keep between Me and between you and between your descendants after you in their birth: may the whole male sex be circumcised” ( Genesis 17: 10-14).
And Jews still follow this covenant: almost all newborn Jewish men in Israel are circumcised, about 99% in the UK and Northern Ireland and 98% in the USA.
The Bible also tells the Christian men to circumcise, but because of the debate about whether the pagans who came to the Church should do this, the ceremony gradually lost its meaning and was actually replaced by baptism.
Muslims also circumcise as a confirmation of their relationship with God.Although the Qur'an does not mention the need for a procedure, it is a prerequisite in order to perform a hajj to Mecca.
The Aztecs, Maya, Native Australians, various African peoples, and other ethnic groups also practice circumcision as a ceremony of initiation, although initially this could be a test of courage and endurance.
Depending on the nationality, the procedure is done either in infancy, or when changing the social role: from boy to man.
For example, in Uganda, a boy stands on his feet during the ceremony, other men cut off his foreskin with several knives. Naturally, everything is done without anesthesia, the boy should not show that he is hurt.
Some ethnic groups, including Dogon and Dovayo from West Africa, see the foreskin as a female element of the penis, the removal of which (along with passing certain tests) displaces the child from the man.
In general, the reasons remained the same. 62.1% of men are circumcised for religious reasons, the rest for cultural, medical, and family reasons (parents circumcise infants). Only about 39% of men in the world are circumcised.
In Russia, this figure is much less than in other countries - 11.8%. But even that is almost 8 million.
For comparison, in the United States, 71.2% of men were circumcised. This is the second most popular procedure in the country for infants. Vaccination comes first.
Medical circumcision has become very popular in the 21st century. He is even recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
There are many questions about circumcision for medical reasons.
The Egyptians did this also for medical purposes: in a drought it was difficult to observe all the necessary hygiene rules, it was easier to get rid of the foreskin.
However, this is a snag: the current level of development of medicine and technology has changed significantly; circumcision for medical reasons has much less sense than is commonly believed. The foreskin is not the extra skin on the penis, it has its own functions.
It has many functions. The main three are protective, immune and erogenous.
The foreskin is a special erogenous zone. It contains a rich and complex network of nerves. Both internal and external folds of the foreskin have a denser distribution of nerve endings than the rest of the penis.
The rich innervation of the inner part of the foreskin contrasts sharply in sensations with limited sensory capabilities of the penis head. On it, the nerve endings are very close to the surface. This leads to the fact that the direct effect can be felt unpleasantly saturated or painful.
A double layer of the foreskin allows the skin of the penis to glide freely and smoothly over the head. One of the functions of the foreskin is to facilitate movement between the surfaces of the mucous membranes of two partners. It allows the penis to slip into the vagina directly inside its own membrane.
Conventional circumcision removes most of these sensitive areas, radically weakens the penis and immobilizes all the remnants of the foreskin.
Loss of the protective self-lubricating mobile two-layer fold and the gap for smooth friction leads to abrasion and personal injury.
Also, a circumcised man may need more intense action to achieve orgasm.
For this reason, a circumcised penis is more likely to cause microcracks, abrasions, and lacerations in the vagina or rectum, and through them, HIV in the semen can come into contact with blood.
The glands present in the foreskin secrete lubricant and protect against infections. The antibacterial enzyme lysozyme in these secretions acts against harmful microorganisms.
In fact, a circumcised penis in the first years of a person’s life is more prone to infection than an uncircumcised penis. An eye without a century will not be cleaner. Same thing with the head of the penis.
Yes there is. But with them everything is not so simple. To understand the issue, we turned to Daria Chernysheva, a urologist, a member of the European Urological Association.
2. Excludes phimosis and paraphimosis
Phimosis is a narrowing of the foreskin around the head of the penis, paraphimosis is an acute form of phimosis.
Obviously, circumcised boys / men do not suffer from phimosis and especially paraphimosis. In addition, they are less likely to suffer from balanoposthitis. But it is important to understand that if the foreskin is handled correctly and hygienic, all of these diseases can be prevented without circumcision.
Daria Chernysheva, urologist
In addition, recently, scientists came to the conclusion that circumcision for the purpose of treating phimosis is not necessary in most cases. A condition in which the foreskin fits snugly to the head is the norm for boys under the age of 18 and is found in 96% of men.
And only in 2% does phimosis take on an extreme form when surgical intervention is required. So, for example, in only 11% of cases, doctors correctly identified the type of phimosis and circumcision was justified.
3. Reduces the likelihood of contracting squamous cell carcinoma of the penis
“This cancer grows from the foreskin, and circumcision reduces the risk of it by almost 70%. No skin - no cancer. But there is one thing, - says the urologist. - This type of cancer is very rare. To prevent one case, it is necessary to cut from 1,000 to 300 thousand boys just like that. At the moment, no one is sure that it is worth it. ”
4. The risk of HPV in partners is reduced
HPV is a family of viruses that cause a person's warts, papillomas, dysplasia (abnormal development of tissues, organs or parts of the body) or cervical cancer.
Circumcised men are less likely to be carriers of HPV. So under the condition of monogamy in a relationship, their partners are less likely to get cervical cancer.
5. The risk of contracting HIV and genital herpes is reduced.
- It is believed that certain bacteria live under the foreskin, which increase the risk of infection.
- The doctor explains how even the foreskin can increase the risk of infection.
Biological fluids containing the virus remain in contact with the skin of the glans penis for longer because of the foreskin.
HIV penetrates relatively easily through this thin skin, in which there are almost always microcracks or inflammations, and penetrates into immune cells (HIV) or neurons (herpes). Together, this increases the person’s risk of becoming infected.
Daria Chernysheva, urologist
There are several arguments against this claim. First, herpes viruses are among the most common infections in humans, including oral herpes. 90% of people have it, it is incurable and not dangerous to health: most infected people have no symptoms at all.
Secondly, for an orgasm, the circumcised penis needs to make more active movements that lead to cracks both on the head and in the vagina, and direct contact with an open wound also increases the risk of HIV infection. At the same time, studies prove that circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection by 60%. But a condom reduces it by 80%.
Moreover, circumcision alone is not a guarantee of safe sex - contraceptives to protect against STDs and HIV will still have to be used.
If we are talking about circumcision for religious beliefs, this is only your choice. When it comes to surgery to prevent disease or simplify hygiene, you should soberly weigh all the chances of success.
Ask your doctor as many questions as possible about potential outcomes, statistics, and your analyzes. Perhaps the probability of losing sensitivity will be higher than getting cancer.
If it’s your child, then try to get the numbers from the doctors. For example, how many boys under the age of one year have urinary infections in your area.
This is not a routine procedure for getting rid of a useless area of the skin, but a full-fledged operation, which should be carried out exclusively by specialists. You must be aware of all the possible consequences: both positive and negative.